For individuals in the U.S. & U.S. territories
Integrative Therapy involves selecting models and methods from across orientations to best suit a particular client and context. Meta-analyses demonstrate that tailoring therapy to the individual client enhances treatment effectiveness.
John C. Norcross's approach to integrative psychotherapy systematically matches evidence-based treatment methods and healing relationships to the client on the basis of multiple transdiagnostic features, including stage of change, reactance level, culture, and preferences.
In this video, Dr. Norcross works with a young man named Jason who seeks to improve both his self-care regimen and interpersonal relationships. Dr. Norcross assesses Jason's stages of change and preferences in these areas, addresses his multiple treatment goals, and applies different relationship stances to help move him forward.
Psychotherapy integration is characterized by dissatisfaction with single-school approaches and a concomitant desire to look across school boundaries to see how patients can benefit from other ways of conducting psychotherapy. Although various labels are applied to this movement — eclecticism, integration, rapprochement, prescriptive therapy, treatment matching — the goals are similar. The ultimate goal is to enhance the efficacy and applicability of psychotherapy.
Concisely put, integrative therapy tailors or customizes treatment to the individual patient and his or her singular context. Therapists do so by drawing on effective methods across theoretical schools and by systematically matching those on the basis of a multitude of diagnostic and particularly transdiagnostic patient features, such as stage of change, reactance level, culture, preferences, and coping style. This responsiveness applies to both treatment methods and therapeutic relationships and is rooted in evidence-based practice, which integrates the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences.
How does integrative therapy differ from ordinary eclecticism and theoretical pluralism? In at least four ways:
- Direct research evidence of effectiveness (not anecdotal)
- Multiple diagnostic and nondiagnostic features of the patient (not simply diagnosis)
- Treatment method and therapy relationship (not only method)
- Matching across the course of therapy (not only pre-treatment)
Thus, therapists strive to create a new therapy for each patient. The result is a more efficient and efficacious therapy — one that fits both the client and the clinician.
John C. Norcross, PhD, ABPP, is professor of psychology and Distinguished University Fellow at the University of Scranton, adjunct professor of psychiatry at SUNY Upstate Medical University, and a clinical psychologist in part-time practice.
Author of more than 300 scholarly publications, Dr. Norcross has cowritten or edited 20 books, including Psychotherapy Relationships That Work (2011); History of Psychotherapy (2011); Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration (2005); Leaving It at the Office: A Guide to Psychotherapist Self-Care (2007); Self-Help That Works (2013); Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical & Counseling Psychology (2011); and Systems of Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Analysis (2010), now in its 8th edition.
He has served as president of APA's Division of Clinical Psychology, Division of Psychotherapy, and the International Society of Clinical Psychology.
Dr. Norcross is also editor of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session and has been on the editorial boards of a dozen journals.
Among his awards are APA's Distinguished Career Contributions to Education & Training Award, Pennsylvania Professor of the Year from the Carnegie Foundation, and election to the National Academies of Practice. An engaging teacher and clinician, Dr. Norcross has conducted workshops and lectures in 30 countries.
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- Beutler, L. E., et al. (2011). Reactance/resistance level. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work (2nd ed.).New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Beutler, L. E., & Harwood, T. M. (2000). Prescriptive psychotherapy: A practical guide to systematic treatment selection. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Castro, F. G., Barrera, M., & Martinez, C. R. (2004). The cultural adaptation of prevention interventions: Resolving tensions between fit and fidelity. Prevention Science, 5, 41–45.
- Connors, G. J., Donovan, D. M., & DiClemente, C. C. (2001). Substance abuse treatment and the stages of change: Selecting and planning interventions. New York, NY: Guilford.
- Duncan, B. L., Hubble, M. A., & Miller, S. D. (Eds.). (2010). The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Lambert, M. J. (Ed.). (2005). Enhancing psychotherapy outcome through feedback. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 61(2).
- Norcross, J. C. (Ed.). (2011). Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence-based responsiveness. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Norcross, J. C. (2010). The therapeutic relationship. In B. Duncan & S. Miller (Eds.), Heart & soul of change in psychotherapy (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Norcross, J. C., & Beutler, L. E. (2010). Integrative therapies. In R. J. Corsini & D. Wedding (Eds.), Current psychotherapies (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
- Norcross, J. C., Beutler, L. E., & Levant, R. F. (Eds.). (2006). Evidence-based practices in mental health: Debate and dialogue on the fundamental questions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Norcross, J. C., Campbell, L. M., Grohol, J. M., Santrock, J. W., Selagea, F., & Sommer, R. (2013). Self-help that works: Evidence-based resources for the public and the professional (4th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Norcross, J. C., Hogan, T. P., & Koocher, G. P. (2008). Clinician's guide to evidence-based practices: Mental health and the addictions. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Norcross, J. C., & Goldfried, M. R. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Norcross, J. C., & Guy, J. D. (2007). Leaving it at the office: A guide to psychotherapist self-care. New York, NY: Guilford.
- Norcross, J. C., Koocher, G. P., & Garofalo, A. (2006). Discredited psychological treatments and tests: A Delphi poll. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 37, 515–522.
- Norcross, J. C., Krebs, P. J., & Prochaska, J. O. (2011). Stages of change. In Psychotherapy relationships that work (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Norcross, J. C., VandenBos, G. R., & Freedheim, D. K. (Eds.). (2011). History of psychotherapy: Continuity and change (2nd ed). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102–1114.
- Prochaska, J. O., & Norcross, J. C. (2010). Systems of psychotherapy: A transtheoretical analysis (7th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
- Prochaska, J. O., Norcross, J. C., & DiClemente, C. C. (1995). Changing for good. New York, NY: Avon.
- Safran, J. D., & Muran, J. C. (2000). Negotiating the therapeutic alliance: A relational treatment guide. New York, NY: Guilford.
- Smith, T. B., Domenech Rodríguez, M., & Bernal, G. (2011). Culture. In Psychotherapy relationships that work (2nd ed.).New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Stricker, G., & Gold, J. (Eds.). (2006). Casebook of psychotherapy integration. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Swift, J. & Callahan, J. L. (2009). The impact of client treatment preferences on outcome: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 368–381.
- Valasquez, M. M., Maurer, G., Crouch, C., & DiClemente, C. C. (2001). Group treatment for substance abuse: A stages-of-change therapy manual. New York, NY: Guilford.
- Client-Directed Outcome-Focused Psychotherapy
- Evidence-Based Treatment
- Integrative Family Therapy
- Integrative Relational Psychotherapy
Paul L. Wachtel
- Prescriptive Eclectic Therapy
John C. Norcross
- Psychotherapy Integration Over Time
- A Casebook of Psychotherapy Integration
Edited by George Stricker and Jerry Gold
- Clinical Dilemmas in Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Approach to Psychotherapy Integration
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- Evidence-Based Practices in Mental Health: Debate and Dialogue on the Fundamental Questions
Edited by John C. Norcross, Larry E. Beutler, and Ronald F. Levant
- Inside the Session: What Really Happens in Psychotherapy
Paul L. Wachtel
- Insight in Psychotherapy
Edited by Louis G. Castonguay and Clara E. Hill
- Interpretive and Supportive Psychotherapies: Matching Therapy and Patient Personality
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- Psychotherapy Integration
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