Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants
Researchers from the United States and seven other countries present leading-edge research and theory concerning the topic of learning and individual differences, which continues to be a vibrant area for multidisciplinary investigation. While cutting across traditional boundaries in psychology, researchers provide incisive historical reviews and integrative analyses of critical research.
Developments in several areas, including cognitive, experimental, instructional, quantitative methodology, and differential psychology provide key insights for understanding both the characteristics of the learner and the characteristics of the learning situation. Of particular value is new research on information processing, ability traits, and knowledge as they pertain to adult learning and individual differences. Specific contributions include theoretical approaches (the Brunswik-symmetry, neurophysiology, and personality–ability integration), methodological approaches (profile analysis, speed–accuracy tradeoff, and modeling of learning), process approaches (visual and auditory information processing, working memory, priming, and automaticity), trait approaches (general intelligence, personality, motivation, and sensory abilities), and content approaches (heuristic reasoning, expertise, and knowledge structures).
Edited open discussions of each chapter provide a vibrant no-holds-barred interchange of ideas and criticism—which shows where paradigms collide and cross-fertilization of methods and perspectives can occur. This book uniquely demonstrates where the field of research has been, where it is today, and where the challenges are for tomorrow.
List of Contributors
I. General Background and Perspectives
- Intelligence and Human Resources: Past, Present, and Future
- Individual Differences in Learning and Memory: Psychometrics and the Single Case
—Alan Baddeley and Susan Gathercole
- Minding Our p's and q's: On Finding Relationships Between Learning and Intelligence
—David F. Lohman
- Investigating the Paths Between Working Memory, Intelligence, Knowledge, and Complex Problem-Solving Performances via Brunswik Symmetry
—Werner W. Wittmann and Heinz-Martin Süß
- Intelligence and Visual and Auditory Information Processing
—Ian J. Deary
- Individual Differences in Priming: The Roles of Implicit Facilitation From Prior Processing
—Dan J. Woltz
- Learning, Automaticity, and Attention: An Individual-Differences Approach
III. Methodological Strategies
- The Structure of Ability Profile Patterns: A Multidimensional Scaling Perspective on the Structure of Intellect
—Mark L. Davison, Haijiang Kuang, and Se-Kang Kim
- Investigating Theoretical Propositions Regarding Mental Abilities: Their Structure, Growth, and Influence
—Keith F. Widaman
- Exploiting the Speed–Accuracy Trade-Off
—David E. Wright and Ian Dennis
- Personality and Skill: A Cognitive–Adaptive Framework
- Measuring and Understanding G: Experimental and Correlational Approaches
- Individual Differences in Motivation: Traits and Self-Regulatory Skills
—Ruth Kanfer and Eric D. Heggestad
- Mining on the "No Man's Land" Between Intelligence and Personality
- Sensory Processes Within the Structure of Human Cognitive Abilities
—Richard D. Roberts, Gerry Pallier, and Ginger Nelson Goff
- Searching for Determinants of Performance in Complex Domains
—Richard K. Wagner
- Individual Differences in Reasoning and the Heuristics and Biases Debate
—Keith E. Stanovich and Richard F. West
- Learner Profiles: Valuing Individual Differences Within Classroom Communities
—Patricia A. Alexander and P. Karen Murphy
- Traits and Knowledge as Determinants of Learning and Individual Differences: Putting It All Together
—Phillip L. Ackerman
About the Editors
This superb book provides a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of research in individual differences pertaining to multiple aspects of learning. Covering such topics as intelligence, information processing, neuroscience, memory, personality, motivation, and sensory processes, the book combines historical and up-to-date literature reviews with reports of the results of recent and previously unpublished research. The chapter authors are among the most highly regarded contemporary researchers in their fields, and each chapter is followed by interesting and incisive group discussions among the contributors. Must reading for anyone interested in individual differences research—broadly defined—and its application to issues in learning: a real tour de force.
—Philip A. Vernon, Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario
[A] nice flavor of individually held differences in viewpoints current in evaluating which data source and how relevant or important. Some of these brief presentations give a lively feeling for the strength with which positions are held and why.
—Psychological Reports, 1999, Vol. 85, p. 703
Overall, this book presents a remarkable breadth and depth of research on individual differences. The editors accomplish the goal of synthesizing work on the influence of traits, processes, prior knowledge, and motivation on learning.
—Teaching and Learning in Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, 58–60, Winter 2000