Assessing the Implicit Personality Through Conditional Reasoning
For individuals in the U.S. & U.S. territories
For many years, the explicit personality — that part of which the person is aware — has dominated the realm of personality assessment. Until now, the implicit personality — the unconscious, inaccessible, hidden reserve of motives and needs explored by Freud, Jung, Rorschach, and others — has been difficult to measure. Yet most psychologists have also concluded that both components of personality govern different behaviors, and their interplay may explain a variety of hitherto unexamined behaviors.
In what Drew Westen has called the "explosion of empirical studies of unconscious cognitive processes," new, more efficient and psychometrically robust methods to measure the implicit personality have been developed of late, attempting to offer the ease and straightforwardness of the explicit personality's self-report assessment standard.
This book lays out a novel framework to examine how new measures of the implicit personality interact with more popular explicit personality measures to provide a comprehensive assessment of personality. The authors use conditional reasoning to indirectly assess various dimensions of the implicit personality: The chosen "solution" to specially constructed inductive reasoning problems is conditional on the test taker's personality — either prosocial or aggressive, the latter informed by unconscious negative cognitive biases and salient justification mechanisms for socially unacceptable aggression, achievement motivation, or fear of failure.
The authors conclude this groundbreaking volume by exploring the other content domains of depression, addiction proneness, and "toxic leadership" through conditional reasoning testing.
List of Tables, Figures, and Exhibits
- Introduction: The Implicit and Explicit Personalities and the Issue of Their Assessment
- Conditional Reasoning and the Implicit Personality: Concepts and Theoretical Foundations
- The Development of Conditional Reasoning Problems
- Empirical Examinations of Conditional Reasoning Tests
- Additional Examinations of Conditional Reasoning Based on Channeling Models
- Future Directions: New Constructs
About the Authors
Lawrence R. James, PhD, is a professor of psychology and management at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He is a fellow of Division 5 (Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics) and 14 (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology) of APA, a founding fellow of the American Psychological Society (now the Association for Psychological Science), and a fellow of the Academy of Management.
In 2003, Dr. James won the Distinguished Career Award from the Academy of Management Research Methods Division. He has been active in building new measurement systems for personality and in studying the effects of organizational environments on individual adaptation, motivation, and productivity. His statistical contributions have been designed to make possible tests of new models in areas such as organizational climate, leadership, and personnel selection.
James M. LeBreton, PhD, is an associate professor of psychological sciences at Purdue University. In 2009, he won the Early Career Award, cosponsored by the Academy of Management Research Methods Division and the Center for the Advancement of Research Methods and Analysis.
Dr. LeBreton studies how toxic personality traits (e.g., aggression, psychopathy) are related to variables such as decision making, team interactions, counterproductive workplace behaviors, and sexual aggression. His methodological work focuses on issues related to multilevel measurement, multilevel analysis, and tests for moderation and mediation.