APA Handbook of Ethics in Psychology
For individuals in the U.S. & U.S. territories
Discussions of ethics in psychology often focus primarily on misconduct, punishment, and legal sanctions, and too often ignore aspirations, values, principles, and virtues. The net effect of this unbalanced approach creates an atmosphere in which psychologists have viewed ethics as unpleasant and frightening, instead of inspiring and uplifting. Psychologists naturally must be concerned about laws, codes, and regulations, but these documents do not constitute the beginning and end of the conversation on ethics.
The editors of this 2-volume reference propose that ethics is best viewed as a striving toward the highest ethical ideals, not just as an injunction against rule violation—a perspective they refer to as "positive ethics" or "active ethics"—and they encourage psychologists to elevate their ethical observance above the minimal standards found in law and enforceable ethics codes.
Against this backdrop, handbook contributors investigate the complexities of ethical behavior in clinical, educational, forensic, health, and "tele-" psychology. Several chapters zero in on the teaching of ethics and on ethically minded research relevant to professionals working in experimental psychology.
By comparison with many ethics textbooks, this two-volume handbook covers a wider range of subjects and pursues them in greater detail. For instance, it reflects important recent advances in research and technology that present new opportunities and challenges for practice and scholarship. Also, it takes a serious look into some burgeoning new areas such as life coaching and providing services over the Internet. These are just two examples of developments that present fascinating, novel ethical questions that deserve attention.
Significant perspectives presented in the handbook include:
- Ethics is more than the knowledge of the laws, rules, and regulations that govern the profession and discipline of psychology.
- Competent psychologists rely on overarching ethical theories, as well as laws and regulations, when they live up to their highest ethical ideals.
- Attention to ethical issues is especially important as psychologists move into new and increasingly complex areas of practice.
Volume 1: Moral Foundations and Common Themes
About the Editor-in-Chief
I. Moral Foundations
- Ethical Foundations of Psychology
Richard F. Kitchener and Karen S. Kitchener
- Ethics and Ethics Codes for Psychologists
Stephen H. Behnke and Stanley E. Jones
- Social Justice and Civic Virtue
- Ethical Decision Making in Mental Health Contexts: Representative Models and an Organizational Framework
R. Rocco Cottone
- Institutional Ethical Conflicts With Illustrations From Police and Military Psychology
Carrie H. Kennedy
II. Ethics in Professional Practice
Thomas F. Nagy
- Emotional Competence and Well-Being
Leonard J. Tamura
- Competence With Diverse Populations
Dianne S. Salter and Beatrice R. Salter
- Boundaries, Multiple Roles, and the Professional Relationship
- Religion, Spirituality, and Mental Health
Alan C. Tjeltveit
- Sexualized Relationships
Janet L. Sonne
- Informed Consent to Psychotherapy (Empowered Collaboration)
Andrew M. Pomerantz
- Confidentiality and Record Keeping
Mary Alice Fisher
- Treating Clients Who Threaten Others or Themselves
Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel, James L. Werth Jr., and G. Andrew H. Benjamin
- Ethical Issues With Patients at a High Risk for Treatment Failure
Samuel J. Knapp and John Gavazzi
- Ethical Issues and the Beginning and End of Therapy
Jeffrey N. Younggren and Denise D. Davis
- Ethics and Business Issues in Psychology Practice
Jeffrey E. Barnett and Lindsay Klimik
- The Regulation of Professional Psychology
Stephen T. DeMers and Jack B. Schaffer
- Risk Management for Psychologists
Samuel J. Knapp, Bruce E. Bennett, and Leon D. VandeCreek
Volume 2: Practice, Teaching, and Research
I. Ethical Issues With Subpopulations, Specialized Settings, and Emerging Areas
- Treating Children and Adolescents
Gerald P. Koocher and Jessica Henderson Daniel
- Ethical Considerations in the Psychological Evaluation and Treatment of Older Adults
Shane S. Bush
- Ethical Issues in Multiperson Therapy
Linda K. Knauss and Jeffrey W. Knauss
- Assessment and Testing
Donald N. Bersoff, David DeMatteo, and Elizabeth E. Foster
- The Health Care Setting: Implications for Ethical Psychology Practice
Stephanie L. Hanson and Thomas R. Kerkhoff
- Ethical Challenges in Forensic Psychology Practice
Michael C. Gottlieb and Alicia Coleman
- School Psychology
Susan Jacob and Megan M. Kleinheksel
- Ethics in Industrial–Organizational Psychology
- Life and Executive Coaching: Some Ethical Issues for Consideration
Sharon K. Anderson, Patrick Williams, and Allison L. Kramer
- The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: Ethical Issues in the Provision of Telehealth
Anthony S. Ragusea
- Positive Ethics Applied to Public Education Through Traditional Media and the Internet
David J. Palmiter Jr.
II. Ethical Issues of Academic and Training Psychologists
- Creating Ethical Academic Cultures Within Psychology Programs
Peter A. Keller, J. Dennis Murray, and David S. Hargrove
- Negotiating the Complex Ethical Terrain of Clinical Supervision
Rodney K. Goodyear and Emil Rodolfa
- Teaching Ethics: Models, Methods, and Challenges
Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel
III. Ethical Issues in Scholarship and Research
- Ethics Issues in Scholarship
Jeffrey E. Barnett and Linda F. Campbell
- The Responsible Conduct of Psychological Research: An Overview of Ethical Principles, APA Ethics Code Standards, and Federal Regulations
Celia B. Fisher and Karyn Vacanti-Shova
- Research With Vulnerable Populations
Joan E. Sieber
- Ethical Issues in Internet Research
Michael Hoerger and Catherine Currell
- Deception in Research
Allan J. Kimmel
- Laboratory Animal Research Ethics: A Practical, Educational Approach
Jennifer L. Perry and Nancy K. Dess
Samuel J. Knapp, EdD, ABPP, has been the director of professional affairs for the Pennsylvania Psychological Association since 1987. His primary area of interest is in professional ethics. His other areas of interest include mental health and well-being, public policy advocacy, and religion and psychology.
In addition to writing several books, numerous book chapters, and more than 80 peer reviewed articles, Dr. Knapp has given more than 250 professional presentations, mostly on ethical issues. Through his work with the Pennsylvania Psychological Association, Dr. Knapp has provided thousands of consultations on ethics to psychologists. In return, these consultees have enriched him by instructing him on the issues they face daily, and their issues provide much of the content for his publications and presentations. He feels much appreciation for the board of directors of the Pennsylvania Psychological Association for allowing him to serve the psychological community in Pennsylvania in this manner.
Among his other ethics related activities, Dr. Knapp coordinates an annual "Ethics Educators" workshop in Pennsylvania; has served as a member of the Task Force responsible for rewriting the 2002 APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct; coauthored an ethics text book (Practical Ethics: A Positive Approach with Leon D. VandeCreek); served as a consultant for the APA Insurance Trust, where he worked on the well-received book Assessing and Managing Risk in Professional Practice; and received the 2009 award for ethics education from the APA Ethics Committee. He also teaches ethics in the doctoral program in clinical psychology at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine.
Dr. Knapp is part of a cadre of psychologists, most of whom participated in this volume, who work from the framework of positive (or active, or integrated) ethics, which attempts to shift the focus on ethics education away from an emphasis on laws and disciplinary actions to a broader approach that appreciates the importance of overarching ethical principles and striving for ethical ideals. A positive perspective permeates many of the chapters in this handbook.
Dr. Knapp is married to Dr. Jane Heesen Knapp, an accomplished psychologist in her own right. They have two children, Michelle Nakasone (married to Jon Nakasone) and Valerie Dietrich (engaged to Greg McClellan); one grandson, Cale Nakasone; and currently share their loving home with Lucy, a mixed breed terrier, and Violet, a Manx cat.