References for all SES Fact Sheets


Administration on Aging. (2001): Older adults and mental health: Issues and opportunities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Aging.

American Psychological Association. (2003). Fact sheet: Facts about depression in older adults. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

American Psychological Association. (2004). Psychologists make a significant contribution: Psychology and aging: Addressing mental health needs of older adults. Retrieved from

American Psychological Association. (2005). Life plan for the life span. Retrieved from

American Psychological Association Task Force on Socioeconomic Status. (2006). Report of the APA Task Force on Socioeconomic Status. Retrieved from

Avendano, M., Kawachi, I., Van Lenthe, F., Boshuizen, H. C., Mackenbach, J. P., Van den Bos, G. A. M., … Berkman, L. F. (2006). Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence in the U.S. elderly: The role of risk factors in the EPESE study. Stroke, 37, 1368–1373.

Bassuk, S. S., Berkman, L. F., & Amick, B. C. (2002). Socioeconomic status and mortality among the elderly: Findings from four U.S. communities. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155, 520-533.

Black, H. K., & Rubinstein, R. L. (2000). Old souls: Aged women, poverty, and the experience of God. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.

Butrica, B. A., Toder, E. J., & Toohey, D. J. (2008). Boomers at the bottom: How will low-income boomers cope with retirement? Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute.

Feldman, P. J., & Steptoe A. (2004). How neighborhoods and physical functioning are related: The roles of neighborhood socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood strain, and individual health risk factors. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 91-9.

Fleck, C. (2008, July 30). Older minorities are becoming America’s poorest residents. AARP Bulletin Today, Retrieved from

Fratiglioni, L., & Rocca, W. A. (2001). Epidemiology of dementia. In F. Boller & S. F. Cappa (Eds.), Handbook of Neuropsychology (pp. 193-215). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Fratiglioni, L., Winblad, B., & von Strauss, E. (2007). Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Major findings from the Kungsholmen Project. Physiology & Behavior, 92, 98-104.

Huguet, N., Kaplan, M. S., & Feeny, D. (2008). Socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life among elderly people: Results from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Healthstar. Social Science & Medicine. 66, 803-810.

Karp, A., Kåreholt, I., Qiu, C., Bellander, T., Winblad, B., & Fratiglioni, L. (2004). Relation of education and occupation-based socioeconomic status to incident Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 159, 175-183.

Krause, N. (2001). “Social support.” In H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences (pp. 272-294). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lee, S., & Shaw, L. (2008). From retirement: Tracking changes in women’s poverty status. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute.

Merkin, S. S., Diez Roux, A.V., Coresha, J., Fried, L. F., Jackson, S. A., & Powe, N. R. (2007). Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status and progressive chronic kidney disease in an elderly population: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Social Science & Medicine, 65, 809–821.

Odubanjo, E., Bennett, K., & Feely, J. (2004). Influence of socioeconomic status on the quality of prescribing in the elderly—a population based study. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 58, 496–502.

Social Security Administration. (2006). Income of the population 55 or older, 2004 (SSA Publication No. 13-11871). Retrieved from:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). American Community Survey: Selected economic characteristics. Retrieved from

Wenger, N. S., Solomon, D. H., Roth, C. P., MacLean, C. H., Saliba, D., Kamberg, C. J., Rubenstein, L. Z., Young, R. T., … Shekelle, P. G. (2003). The quality of medical care provided to vulnerable community dwelling older patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139, 740–747.

Children, Youth, and Families

Chen, E., & Paterson, L. Q. (2006). Neighborhood, family, and subjective socioeconomic status: How do they relate to adolescent health? Health Psychology, 25, 704-714.

Colhoun, H. M., Hemingway, H., & Poulter, N. R. (1998). Socio-economic status and blood pressure: An overview analysis. Journal of Human Hypertension, 12, 91–110.

Duncan, G. J., & Magnuson, K. A. (2005). Can family socioeconomic resources account for racial and ethnic test score gaps? The Future of Children, 15, 35-54.

Evans, D. A., Hebert, L. E., Beckett, L. A., Scherr, P. A., Albert, M. S., Chown, M. J., … Taylor, J. O. (1997). Education and other measures of socioeconomic status and risk of incident Alzheimer disease in a defined population of older persons. Archives of Neurology, 54, 1399-1405.

Fratiglioni, L., & Rocca, W. A. (2001). Epidemiology of dementia. In F. Boller, & S. F. Cappa (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 193- 215). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Fratiglioni, L., Winblad, B., & von Strauss, E. (2007). Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Major findings from the Kungsholmen Project. Physiology & Behavior, 92, 98-104..

Goodman, E. (1999). The role of socioeconomic status gradients in explaining differences in U.S. adolescents’ health. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1522-1528.

Harris, E. (2005). Key strategies to improve schools: How to apply them contextually. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Hochschild, J. L. (2003). Social class in public schools. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 821-840.

Kaplan, G. A., & Keil, J. E. (1993). Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: A review of the literature. Circulation, 88, 1973-1998.

Karp, A., Kåreholt, I., Qiu, C., Bellander, T., Winblad, B., & Fratiglioni, L. (2004). Relation of education and occupation-based socioeconomic status to incident Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 159,175-183.

Melki, I. S., Beydoun, H. A., Khogali, M., Tamim, H., & Yunis, K. A. (2004). Household crowding index: A correlate of socioeconomic status and interpregnancy spacing in an urban setting. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58, 476-480.

Molnar, B. E., Cerda, M., Roberts, A. L., & Buka, S. L. (2008). Effects of neighborhood resources on aggressive and delinquent behaviors among urban youths. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 1086-1093.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2002). Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Retrieved from

Newacheck, P. W., Hung, Y. Y., Park, M. J., Brindis, C. D., & Irwin, C. E. (2003). Disparities in adolescent health and health care: Does socioeconomic status matter? Health Services Research, 38, 1235-1252.

Ondersma, S. J. (2002). Predictors of neglect within low - SES families: The importance of substance abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 383-391.

Pearlman, D. N., Zierler, S., Gjelsvik, A., & Verhoek- Oftedahl, W. (2004). Neighborhood environment, racial position, and risk of police-reported domestic violence: A contextual analysis. Public Health Reports, 118, 44-58.

Purcell-Gates, V., McIntyre, E., & Freppon, P. A. (1995). Learning written storybook language in school: A comparison of low - SES children in skills - based and whole language classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 659-685.

Spencer M. S., Kohn L. P., & Woods J. R. (2002). Labeling vs. early identification: The dilemma of mental health services under-utilization among low-income African American children. African American Perspectives, 8, 1–14.

Steptoe, A., & Marmot, M. (2004). Socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease: A psychobiological perspective. In L. J. Waite (Ed.), Aging, health and public policy: Demographic and economic perspectives (Supplement to Vol. 30). New York: Population Council.

Trickett, P. K., Aber, J. L., Carlson, V., & Cicchetti, D. (1991). Relationship of socioeconomic status to the etiology and developmental sequelae of physical child abuse. Developmental Psychology, 27, 148-158.

Weissman, M. M., Leckman, J. F., Merikangas, K. R., Gammon, G. D., & Prusoff, B. A. (1984).Depression and anxiety disorders in parents and children: Results from the Yale Family Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 845-852.

Zhang, M. (2003). Links between school absenteeism and child poverty. Pastoral Care in Education, 21, 10-17.


American Psychological Association Task Force on Socioeconomic Status. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on Socioeconomic Status. Retrieved from

Chan, F. (2008). Demand-side employment placement models for persons with disabilities. In Spotlight on disability: Newsletter of APA’s Office on Disability Issues in Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Coppin, A. K., Ferrucci, L., Lauretani, F., Phillips, C., Chang, M., Bandinelli, S., & Guralnik, J. M. (2006). Low socioeconomic status and disability in old age: Evidence from the InChianti Study for the Mediating Role of Physiological Impairments. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61, 86-91.

Drainoni, M., Lee-Hood, E., Tobias, C., Bachman, S., Andrew, J., & Maisels, L. (2006). Cross-disability experiences of barriers to health-care access: Consumer perspectives. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 17, 101-115.

Ravesloot, C., Seekins, T., & White, G. (2005). Living well with a disability health promotion intervention: Improved health status for consumers and lower costs for health care policymakers. Rehabilitation Psychology, 50, 239-245.

Soumerai, S., Pierre-Jacques, M., Zhang, F., Ross-Degnan, D., Adams, A., Gurwitz, J.,… Safran, D. G. (2006). Cost-related medication nonadherence among elderly and disabled Medicare beneficiaries: A national survey 1 year before the Medicare drug benefit. Archives of Internal Medicine. 166(17), 1829-1835.

Steinmetz, E. (2006). Americans with disabilities: 2002. Current population reports (Report No. P70-107). Retrieved from

U.S. Census Bureau (2006). American Community Survey: Selected economic characteristics. Retrieved from


Aikens, N. L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 235-251.

Coley, R. J. (2002). An uneven start: Indicators of inequality in school readiness. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Gimbert, B., Bol, L., & Wallace, D. (2007). The influence of teacher preparation on student achievement and the application of national standards by teachers of mathematics in urban secondary schools. Education and Urban Society, 40, 91-117.

Ingersoll, R. (1999). The problem of underqualified teachers in American secondary schools. Educational Researcher, 28, 26–37.

Kaylor, M., & Flores, M. M. (2008).Increasing academic motivation in culturally and linguistically diverse students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Journal of Advanced Academics, 19, 66-89.

Langhout, R. D., Drake, P., & Rosselli, F. (2009). Classism in the university setting: Examining student antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2, 166-181.

Mistry, R. S., Benner, A. D., Tan, C. S., & Kim, S. Y. (2009). Family economic stress and academic well-being among Chinese-American youth: The influence of adolescents’ perceptions of economic strain. Journal of Family Psychology, 279-290.

Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., & Maczuga, S. (2009). Risk factors for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age: Population-based estimates. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 401-413.

Muijs, D., Harris, A., Chapman, C., Stoll, L., & Russ, J. (2009). Improving schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas—A review of research evidence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15, 149-175.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2008). Percentage of high school dropouts among persons 16 through 24 years old (status dropout rate), by income level, and percentage distribution of status dropouts, by labor force status and educational attainment: 1970 through 2007. Retrieved from

Orr, A. J. (2003). Black-White differences in achievement: The importance of wealth. Sociology of Education, 76, 281-304.

Palardy, G. J. (2008). Differential school effects among low, middle, and high social class composition schools: A multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve analysis. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 19, 21-49.

End of Life

Bradley, C. J., Given, C. W., & Roberts, C. (2001). Disparities in cancer diagnosis and survival. Cancer, 91, 178-188.

Breen, N., Wagner, D. K., Brown, M. L., Davis, W. W., & Ballard-Barbash, R. (2001). Progress in cancer screening over a decade: Results of cancer screening from the 1987, 1992, and 1998 National Health Interview Surveys. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93, 1704-1713.

Cohen, S. R., Boston, P., Mount, B. M., & Porterfield, P. (2001). Changes in quality of life following admission to palliative care units. Palliative Medicine, 15, 363-371.

Greiner, K. A., Perera, S., & Ahluwalia, J. S. (2003). Hospice usage by minorities in the last year of life: Results from the national mortality followback survey. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 51, 970- 978.

Katz, S. J., Zemencuk, J. K., & Hofer, T. P. (2000). Breast cancer screening in the United States and Canada, 1994: Socioeconomic gradients persist. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 799-803.

McCarthy, E. P., Burns, R. B., Davis, R. B., & Phillips, R. S. (2003). Barriers to hospice care among older patients dying with lung and colorectal cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 728-735.

O’Malley, M. S., Earp, J. L., Hawley, S. T., Schell, M. J., Mathews, H. F., & Mitchell, J. (2001). The association of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physician recommendation for mammography: Who gets the message about breast cancer screening? American Journal of Public Health, 91, 49-54.

Sambamoorthi, U., & McAlpine, D. D. (2003). Racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and access disparities in the use of preventive services among women. Preventive Medicine 37, 475–484.

Silveira, M. J., DiPiero, A., Gerrity, M. S., & Feudtner, C. (2000). Patients’ knowledge of options at the end of life: Ignorance in the face of death. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 2483-2488.

Ward, E., Jemal, A., Cokkinides, V., Singh, G. K., Cardinez, C., Ghafoor, A., & Thun, M. (2004). Cancer disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 54, 78- 93.

Ethnic and Racial Minorities

American Council on Education. (2006). Students of color make dramatic gains in college enrollment but still trail Whites in the rate at which they attend college. Retrieved from

Azzam, A. M. (2008). Neglecting higher achievers. Educational Leadership, 66, 90-92.

Chaudhry, S., Fink, A., Gelberg, L., & Brook, R. (2003). Utilization of Papanicolaou smears by South Asian women living in the United States. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18, 377-384.

Chow, J. C-C., Jaffe, K., & Snowden, L. (2003). Racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services in poverty areas. American Journal of Public Health. 93, 792-797.

Corcoran, J., & Nichols-Casebolt, A. (2004). Racial/ethnic disparities in the use of ecological framework for assessment and goal formulation. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21, 211-235.

Costello, E. J., Keeler, G. P., & Angold, A. (2001). Poverty, race/ethnicity, and psychiatric disorder: A study of rural children. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1494-1498.

Fiscella, K., Franks, P., Gold, M. R., & Clancy, C. M. (2008). Inequality in quality: Addressing socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities in health care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 2579- 2584.

House, J. S., & Williams, D. R. (2000). Understanding and reducing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in health. In B. D. Smedley & S. L. Syme (Eds.), Promoting health: Intervention strategies from social and behavioral research (pp. 81-125). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Jones, A. R., Thompson, C. J., Oster, R.A., Samadi, A., Davis, M. K., Mayberry, R. M., & Caplan, L. S. (2003). Breast cancer knowledge, beliefs, and screening behaviors among low income, elderly black women. Journal of the National Medical Association, 95, 791-797 & 802-805.

Le, C. N. (2008). The model minority image. Asian-Nation: The landscape of Asian America. Retrieved from

Logan, A. (2008). The state of minorities: How are minorities faring in the economy? Center for American Progress. Retrieved from

National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities. Retrieved from

Rodgers, W. M. (2008). Understanding the Black and White earnings gap: Why do African Americans continue to earn less despite dramatic gains in education? The American Prospect. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2006). Health care for minority women. Retrieved from


Adler, N. E. (2006). Overview of health disparities. In G. E. Thompson, F. Mitchell, & M. Williams (Eds.), Examining the health disparities research plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished business (pp. 129–188). Washington: National Academic Press.

Aidala, A., Cross, J. E., Stall, R., Harre, D., & Sumartojo, E. (2005).Housing status and HIV risk behaviors: Implications for prevention and policy. AIDS and Behavior, 9, 251-265.

Culhane, D. P., Gollub, E., Kuhn, R., & Shpaner, M. (2001). The co-occurrence of AIDS and homelessness: Results from the integration of administrative databases for AIDS surveillance and public shelter utilization in Philadelphia. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55, 515-520

Cunningham, W. E., Hays, R. D., Duan, N., Andersen, R., Nakazono, T. T., Bozzette S. A., & Shapiro, M. F. (2005). The effect of socioeconomic status on the survival of people receiving care for HIV infection in the United States. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 16, 655-676.

Dray-Spira, R., Lert, F., Marimoutou, C., Bouhnik, A.-D., & Obadia, Y. (2003). Socio-economic conditions, health status and employment among persons living with HIV/AIDS in France in 2001. AIDS Care, 15(6), 739-748.

Ickovics, J. R., Beren, S. E., Grigorenko, E. L., Morrill, A. C., Druley, J. A., & Rodin, J. (2002). Pathways of risk: Race, social class, stress, and coping as factors predicting heterosexual risk behaviors for HIV among women. AIDS and Behavior, 6, 339-350.

Joy, R., Druyts, E. F., Brandson, E. K., Lima, V. D., Rustad, C. A., McPhil, R.,… Hogg, R. S. (2008). Impact of neighborhood-level socioeconomic status on HIV disease progression in a universal health care setting. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 47, 500-505.

Kass, N. E., Munoz, A., Chen, B., Zucconi, S. L., Bing, E. G., & Hennessy, M. (1994). Changes in employment, insurance, and income in relation to HIV status and disease progression. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 7, 86-91.

Martin, S. C., Wolters, P. L., Toledo-Tamula, M. A., Zeichner, S. L., Hazra, R., & Civitello, L. (2006). Cognitive functioning in school-aged children with vertically acquired HIV infection being treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). Developmental Neuropsychology, 30, 633-657.

Perry, M. J. (1998). Gender, race and economic perspectives on the social epidemiology of HIV infection: Implications for prevention. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 19, 97-104.

Rabkin, J., McElhiney, M., Ferrando, S. J., Van Gorp, W., & Lin, S. H. (2004). Predictors of employment of men with HIV/AIDS: A longitudinal study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 72–78.

Satz, P. (1993). Brain reserve capacity on symptom onset after brain injury: A formulation and review of evidence for threshold theory. Neuropsychology, 7, 273-295.

Schechter, M. T., Hogg, R. S., Aylward, B., Craib, K. J., Le, T. N., & Montaner, J. S. (1994). Higher socio-economic status is associated with slower progression of HIV infection independent of access to health care. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 47, 59–67.

Wood, E., Montaner, J. S., Chan, K., Tyndall, M. W., Schechter, M. T., Bangsberg, D.,… Hogg, R. S. (2002), Socioeconomic status, access to triple therapy, and survival from HIV-disease since 1996. AIDS, 16, 2065-2072.

Lesbian, Gay , Bisexual, And Transgender Persons

Cochran, B. N., Stewart, A. J., Ginzler, J. A., & Cauce, A. M. (2002). Challenges faced by homeless sexual minorities: Comparison of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender homeless adolescents with their heterosexual counterparts. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1125–1130.

Egan, P. J., Edelman, M. S., & Sherrill, K. (2008). Finding from the Hunter College poll of lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: New discoveries about identity, political attitudes, and civic engagement. Retrieved from Human Rights Campaign website:

Factor, R. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (2007). A study of transgender adults and their non-transgender siblings on demographic characteristics, social support, and experiences of violence. Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3, 11-30.

Fassinger, R. (2007, September). Sexual orientation and gender identity. PowerPoint presented at the American Psychological Association Fall Board Committee Meeting, Washington, DC.

Milburn, N, W., Ayala, G., Rice, E., Batterham, P., & Rotherham-Borus, M. J. (2006). Discrimination and exiting homelessness among homeless adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12, 658-672.

Ray, N., & National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. (2006). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: An epidemic of homelessness. Retrieved from

U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). American Community Survey: Selected economic characteristics. Retrieved from


American Psychological Association. (2009). Effective strategies to support positive parenting in community health centers: Report of the Working Group on Child Maltreatment Prevention in Community Health Centers. Washington, DC: Author.

Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. D., Pollard, J. A., Catalano, R. F., & Baglioni, A. J., Jr. (2002). Measuring risk and protective factors for substance use, delinquency, and other adolescent problem behaviors. The Communities That Care Survey. Evaluation Review, 26, 575-601.

Bassuk, E. L., Weinreb, L. F., Buckner, J. C., Browne, A., Salomon, A., & Bassuk, S. S. (1996). The characteristics and needs of sheltered homeless and low-income housed mothers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 640-646.

Browne, A., Salomon, A., & Bassuk, S. S. (1999). The impact of recent partner violence on poor women’s capacity to maintain work. Violence Against Women, 5, 393-426.

Buka, S. L., Stichick, T. L., Birdthistle, I., & Felton, S. M. (2001). Youth exposure to violence: Prevalence, risks, and consequences. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 298-310.

Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Youth violence: A report of the Surgeon General. Available from:

Fonagy, P., Twemlow, S. W., Vernberg, E., Sacco, F. C., & Little, T. D. (2005). Creating a peaceful school learning environment: The impact of an antibullying program on educational attainment in elementary schools. Medical Science Monitor, 11, 317-325.

Hawkins, J. D., Van Horn, M. L., & Arthur, M. W. (2004). Community variation in risk and protective factors and substance use outcomes. Prevention Science, 5, 213-220.

Kegler, M. C., Oman, R. F., Vesely, S. K., McLeroy, K. R., Aspy, C. B., Rodine, S., et al. (2005). Relationships among youth assets and neighborhood and community resources. Health Education and Behavior, 32, 380-397.

Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (1998). Predictors of violent and serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: A synthesis of longitudinal research. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 86-105). Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage Publications.

Murdoch, M. (2006). Does PTSD service connection affect disease course and functioning? United States Department of Veteran’s Affairs. Retrieved from

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2003). Costs of intimate partner violence against women in the United States. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Perez, C. M., & Widom, C. S. (1994). Childhood victimization and long-term intellectual and academic outcomes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 617-633.

Resnick, M. D., Ireland, M., & Borowsky, I. (2004). Youth violence perpetration: What protects? What predicts? Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 424-434.

Savoca, E., & Rosenheck, R. (2000). The civilian labor market experiences of Vietnam-era veterans: The influence of psychiatric disorders. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 3, 199-207.

Schwartz, D., & Gorman, A. H. (2003). Community violence exposure and children’s academic functioning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 163-173.

Smith, M. W., Schnurr, P. P., & Rosenheck. R. A. (2005). Employment outcomes and PTSD symptom severity. Mental Health Services Research, 7, 89-101.

World Health Organization. (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva: Author.

Zatzick, D. F., Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. S., Browner, W. S., Metzler, T. J., Golding, J. M., et al. (1997). Posttraumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1690–1695.


Adler, N. E. (2006). Overview of health disparities. In G. E. Thompson, F. Mitchell, & M. Williams (Eds.), Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished business (pp. 129–88). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Beard, J. L., Hendricks, M. K., Perez, E. M., Murray-Kolb, L. E., Berg, A., Vernon-Feagans, L.,… Tomlinson, M. (2005). Maternal iron deficiency anemia affects postpartum emotions and cognition. The Journal of Nutrition, 135, 267-272.

Belle, D., & Doucet, J. (2003) Poverty, inequality, and discrimination as sources of depression among U.S. women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27, 1001- 1113.

Bodnar, L. M., Scanlon, K. S., Freedman, D. S., Siega-Riz, A. M., & Cogswell, M. (2001). High prevalence of postpartum anemia among low-income women in the United States. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 185, 438-443.

Colten, M. E., & Allard, M. A. (1997). In harm’s way? Domestic violence, AFDC receipt and welfare reform in Massachusetts. Boston: University of Massachusetts Center for Social Policy Research. Condrasky, M., & Marsh, J. (2005). Food stamps and dietary intake of low-income women in the rural south in the time of welfare reform. Top Clinical Nutrition, 20, 366-374.

DeAngelis, T. (2001). Welfare reform and women, five years later. Monitor on Psychology, 32, 70-72.

Du, X. L., Fang, S., & Meyer, T. E. (2008). Impact of treatment and socioeconomic status on racial disparities in survival among older women with breast cancer. American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 31, 125-132.

Edin, K., & Kefalas, M. (2005). Promises I can keep: Why poor women put motherhood before marriage. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gondolf, E.W., & Fisher. E. R. (1988). Battered women as survivors: An alternative to learned helplessness. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Groh, C. J. (2007). Poverty, mental health, and women: Implications for psychiatric nurses in primary care settings. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 13, 267-274.

Hemingway, A. (2007). Determinants of coronary heart disease risk for women on a low income: Literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60, 359-367

Jeffery, R. W., & French, S. A. (1996). Socioeconomic status and weight control practices among 20- to 45-year old women. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 1005-1010.

Lee, R. E., Cubbin, C., & Winkleby, M. (2007). Contribution of neighbourhood socioeconomic status and physical activity resources to physical activity among women. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 61, 882-890.

Sabatino, S. A., Coates, R. J., Uhler, R. J., Breen, N., Tangka, F., & Shaw, K. M. (2008). Disparities in mammography use among U.S. women aged 40 - 64 years, by race, ethnicity, income, and health insurance status, 1993 and 2005. Medical Care, 46, 692-700.

Stewart, A. L., Dean, M. L., Gregorich, S. E., Brawarsky, P., & Haas, J. S. (2007). Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and the health of pregnant women. Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 285-300.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). American Community Survey: Selected economic characteristics. Retrieved from

Work Stress and Health

Aittomäki, A., Lahelma, E., & Roos, E. (2003).Work conditions and socioeconomic inequalities in work ability. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 29(2), 159-165.

Barbeau, E. M., Krieger, N., & Soobader, M. (2004). Working class matters: Socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender, and smoking in NHIS 2000, American Journal of Public Health, 94, 269-278.

Barger, L. K., Cade, B. E., Ayas, N. T., Cronin, J. W., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. E., Czeisler, C. A. (2005). Extended work shifts and risk of motor vehicle crashes among interns. New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 125-3.

Becker, P. E., & Moen, P. (1999). Scaling back: Dual-earner couples’ work-family strategies. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 995-1007.

Bronner, G., Peretz, C., & Ehrenfeld, E. (2003). Sexual harassment of nurses and nursing students. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42(6), 637-644.

Clarke, S. (2006). The relationship between safety climate and safety performance: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(4), 315-327.

Cochrane, G. (2001, July). The effects of sleep deprivation. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 70(7), 22-25.

Dembe, A. E, Erickson, J. B., Delbos, R. G., & Banks, S. M. (2005). The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: New evidence from the United States. Occupational Environmental Medicine. 62(9), 588-597.

Gillen, M., Baltz, D., Gassel, M., Kirsch, L., & Vaccaro, D. (2002). Perceived safety climate, job demands, and coworker support among union and nonunion injured construction workers. Journal of Safety Research, 33, 33-51.

Guimont, C., Brisson, C., Dagenais, G. R., Milot, A., Vézina, M., Mâsse, B., et al. (2006). Effects of job strain on blood pressure: A prospective study of male and female white collar workers. American Journal of Public Health, 96(8), 1436-1443.

Kuper, H., & Marmot, M. (2003). Job strain, job demands, decision latitude, and risk of coronary heart disease within the Whitehall II study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57, 147-153.

Landsbergis, P. A., Cahill, J., & Schnall, P. (1999). The impact of lean production and related new systems of work organization on worker health. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(2), 108-130.

Landsbergis, P. A., Schnall, P. L., Pickering, T. G., Warren, K., & Schwartz, J. E. (2003). Lower socioeconomic status among men in relation to the association between job strain and blood pressure. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 29(3), 206-215.

MacDonald, L., Harenstam, A., Warren, N., & Punnett, L. (2008). Incorporating work organization into occupational health research: An invitation for dialogue. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65, 1–3.

O’Connell, C. E., & Korabik, K. (2000). Sexual harassment: The relationship of personal vulnerability, work context, perpetrator status, and type of harassment to outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(3), 299-329.

Richman, A., Johnson, A., & Buxham, L. (2006). Workplace flexibility for lower wage workers: Washington, DC: Corporate Voices for Working Families’ Workplace Flexibility Project.

Savicki, V., Cooley, E., & Gjesvold, J. (2003). Harassment as a predictor of job burnout in correctional officers, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30(5), 602-619.

Sheiner, E. K., Sheiner, E., Carel, R., Potashnik, G., & Shoham-Vardi, I. (2002). Potential association between male infertility and occupational psychological stress. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 44(12), 1093-1099.

Sorensen, G., Barbeau, E., Hunt, M. K., & Emmons, K. (2004). Reducing social disparities in tobacco use: A social contextual model for reducing tobacco use among blue-collar workers. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 230-239.

Valente, S. M., & Bullough, V. (2004). Sexual harassment of nurses in the workplace. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 19(3), 234-241.