Board of Directors Approved Minutes: December 7–9, 2007
Present: Sharon Stephens Brehm, PhD; Alan E. Kazdin, PhD; Gerald P. Koocher, PhD; Barry S. Anton, PhD; Carol D. Goodheart, EdD; Norman B. Anderson, PhD; Jessica Henderson Daniel, PhD; Lisa Grossman, JD, PhD; Douglas C. Haldeman, PhD; Ronald H. Rozensky, PhD; Kristi Sands Van Sickle, PsyD; Melba J. T. Vasquez, PhD; and James H. Bray, PhD, Armand R. Cerbone, PhD, Paul L. Craig, PhD, and Nadia Talal Hasan, MA (incoming Board members)
Absent: Michael Wertheimer, PhD, and Suzanne Bennett Johnson, PhD (incoming Board member)
I. MINUTES OF MEETING
A.(1) The Board voted to approve the minutes of the August 15 & 17, 2007, meeting of the Board of Directors.
II. ELECTIONS, AWARDS, MEMBERSHIP AND HUMAN RESOURCES
A.(1A) The Board discussed and voted to reaffirm existing policies regarding dues payments and automatic resignations as established by the APA Bylaws and Association Rules. The Board instructed staff to follow its normal procedures to drop those members who are in a 2-year unpaid status from membership in the Association, noting that payment of the practice assessment only or any partial payment of dues is tantamount to withholding dues. The Board directed that Members in the 2-year unpaid status who request an exception to the policies governing automatic resignation be notified that their request will not be fulfilled, but that they are encouraged to reapply for membership.
In executive session, the Board took action on the following nominations/appointments:
- The Board voted to approve the Committee on International Relations in Psychology's (CIRP's) request to extend the term of the appointment of Corann Okorodudu, PhD, as APA's United Nations Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Representative for one year through December 31, 2008.
- The Board voted to approve Charles L. Brewer, PhD, as the recipient of the 2008 Raymond D. Fowler Award for Outstanding Contributions to APA - Member.
- The Board voted to appoint Eve M. Brank, JD, PhD, Sharon G. Portwood, JD, PhD, and Lori C. Thomas, JD, PhD, to serve three-year terms (1/1/2008-12/31/2010) on the Committee on Legal Issues.
- The Board voted to approve Joseph Prewitt Diaz, PhD, and Gundelina Velazco, PhD, as the co-recipients of the 2008 APA International Humanitarian Award.
- The Board voted to appoint the following individuals to the Board of Educational Affairs(BEA)/Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice (CAPP) Task Force to Develop an APA Designation Process for Post-doctoral Psychopharmacology Education and Training Programs pending approval by the Board and Council in February 2008 of the establishment of the Task Force: Louise Douce, PhD, BEA Co-Chair; Ronald E. Fox, PhD, CAPP Co-Chair; Glenn Ally, PhD, Prescribing Psychologist; John Bolter, PhD, CAPP Expert Representative; Linda F. Campbell, PhD, BEA Expert Representative; John C. Linton, PhD, Quality Assurance Expert; Bob McGrath, PhD, Program Training Director; and Paul Nelson, PhD, Quality Assurance Expert.
- The Board voted to appoint Frederick R. Kobrick as a non-voting investment community member of the Finance Committee and Joan E. Lynch as a non-voting audit community member of the Finance Committee for three-year terms (1/1/2008-12/31/2010).
- The Board voted to appoint Katherine S. Milar, PhD, to serve a three-year term (1/1/2008-12/31/2010) and Laura L. Koppes, PhD, to serve a two-year term (1/1/2008-12/31/2008) on the History Oversight Committee.
- The Board voted to appoint Roxanne Donovan, PhD, and Josephine Minardo, PsyD, to serve three-year terms (1/1/2008-12/31/2010) on the Committee on Early Career Psychologists.
- The Board voted to appoint Dr. Koocher to serve a two-year term (1/1/2008-12/31/2009) on APAIT and received notification that Ronald E. Fox, PhD, has been reappointed to serve a three-year term (1/1/2008-12/31/2010) on APAIT.
- The Board voted to approve the continuing committee appointments (attached).
A.(35) The Board received as information an update regarding reforms to the educative and adjudicative activities of the Ethics Office and Ethics Committee, as initiated in response to the Board's review and recommendations in 2001.
IV. BOARD OF DIRECTORS
A.(2) The Board voted to recommend that Council adopt as APA policy the report Blueprint for Change: Achieving Integrated Health Care for an Aging Population.
B.(3) The Board voted to allocate $38,500 from the President's discretionary fund to support Dr. Kazdin's 2008 presidential initiatives: Psychology's Contribution to the Grand Challenges of Society, Interpersonal Violence: Conflicting Agenda and Forging New Directions, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma in Children and Adolescents.
B.(4) The Board voted to approve the following meeting dates for 2009: February 18 & 19, April 24-26, June 5-7, August 4 & 8, October 9-11, December 4-6. (Note: Subsequent to the meeting, the June dates were changed to June 12-14.)
C.(5) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the following motion regarding breakout groups at Council meetings:
D.(6) The Board voted to recommend that Council reject the main and substitute motions of the item "Dealing with Proposed Wording Changes During Council Debate (NBI #32A)." Although the Board recognized the intent of the motions, the Board did not want to infringe on Council's right to amend a motion.
E.(7) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the following motion:
F.(8) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve and forward to the membership for a vote the following amendment to the APA Bylaws (bracketed material to be deleted):
1. The Board of Directors shall consist of the President, the President-Elect, the Past-President, the Recording Secretary, the Treasurer, the Chief Staff Officer (without vote), the APAGS Representative to the Council of Representatives [(without vote)], and six others elected by a preferential ballot by those Members and from those Members holding seats on Council during the year immediately preceding the election. Directors not serving ex officio shall serve for staggered terms of three years. All members of the Board of Directors shall serve until their successors are elected and qualify.
The Board recommended that Council not include pro/con statements with the Bylaw amendment ballot.
G.(9) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the following motion:
H.(36) The Board received a briefing on the status of APA's collaboration with the American Bar Association.
I. In executive session, the Board took action on the following Psychology Defense Fund case:
V. DIVISIONS AND STATE AND PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL ASSOCIATIONS
A.(10) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the establishment of the Division for Qualitative Inquiry, Division 57 of the American Psychological Association, as a candidate division.
B.(11) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve forwarding to the membership for a vote the proposed amendments to the Bylaws and Association Rules as follows (brackets indicate deletions and underlining indicates additions):
Article IV - Power and Functions of the Council of Representatives
4. Upon petition of .50% of the Members in good standing at the time of the petition's filing with the Recording Secretary or upon vote of any Division or State,[or] Provincial, or Territorial Psychological Association, any matter of legislation may be brought to the attention of Council, which shall vote upon it at its next meeting.
Article V - Composition of the Council of Representatives
1. Council shall be composed of Representatives of Divisions, Representatives of State, [and] Provincial and Territorial Psychological Associations, members of the Board of Directors, the Officers of the Association (the chief staff officer shall serve without vote) and the APAGS Representative. In the event that any Representatives of a given Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Association cannot be present, Council will seat one member as an Alternate Representative for that meeting, provided such member is an officer of or has been designated in advance by that Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Association. Representatives shall hold office until their successors are elected and qualify, except that a Representative who has been elected to the Board of Directors shall continue to be a member of Council after the expiration of his/her term as Representative, and after the election and qualification of his/her successor as Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Association Representative, until the expiration of his/her term as a member of the Board of Directors.
3. Representatives to Council shall be elected from Divisions and State,[and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Associations, but need not necessarily be elected from every Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association.
5. Council Representatives of a Division or State/Provincial/Territoral Association shall be members of the Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Association, and Members of the Association, and shall be elected for a period not to exceed three years. If during that three-year period the Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Association is allocated fewer seats, the Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Association shall recall the appropriate number of Representatives. The term of office of the recalled member is thereby terminated.
6. Each APA Fellow, Member, and voting Associate member shall choose the Division(s) or State/Provincial/Territorial Association(s) through which he/she elected to have his/her interest represented on Council by allocating, at the time of the annual dues statement, a total of ten (10) votes to the Division(s) and/or State/Provincial/Territorial Association(s) through which he/she wishes to be represented the following year. However, only Fellows, Members (or voting Associate members) of the Divisions or State/Provincial/Territorial Associations so designated will be allowed to nominate and elect their Council Representatives.
7. The number of Representatives from Divisions and State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Associations shall be 162. The 162 Representatives will be divided into 2 pools, one for State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Associations and one for Divisions. The percentage of the 162 seats for State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Associations shall correspond to the percentage of total apportionment votes allocated to State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Associations and the percentage of the 162 seats for Divisions shall correspond to the percentage of total apportionment votes allocated to Divisions.
Each Division shall be allocated one seat from the Division Pool and each State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association shall be allocated one seat from the State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association Pool. The awarding of additional seats allocated to each Pool shall be based on the percentage of allocated votes received by a Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association and calculated as follows:
2.5% to less than 3.5%…2 additional seats
3.5% to less than 4.5%…3 additional seats
If, after all units in a Pool have been assigned the additional seats to which they are entitled by virtue of their percentages, there remain seats allocated to a Pool which have not been assigned, those remaining seats shall be assigned to the units in the Pool in the order in which the units came closest to being awarded another seat as a result of the allocated votes.
8. A Council member who has served for six consecutive years shall not be eligible for election or appointment for a period of one year as a Representative from any Division, State/Provincial/Territorial Association, or coalition.
9. Any group of State,[or] Provincial, or Territorial Psychological Associations or Divisions may, by mutual agreement, associate themselves as a unit for Council representation. Wherever the terms State,[and] Provincial, or Territorial Psychological Association and/or Division are used in this article, they refer to such coalitions as well as to individual State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Associations or Divisions.
Article VII - Board of Directors
1. The Board of Directors shall consist of the President, the President-elect, the Past President, the Recording Secretary, the Treasurer, the chief staff officer (without vote), the APAGS Representative to the Council of Representatives (without vote) and six others elected by a preferential ballot by those Members holding seats on Council during the year preceding the election and from those Members holding seats on Council representing Divisions or State, [and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Associations during the year immediately preceding the election. Directors not serving ex officio shall serve for staggered terms of three years. All members of the Board of Directors shall serve until their successors are elected and qualify.
Article VIII - Officers
9. The Board of Directors shall nominate a Member of the Association to Council for confirmation as chief staff officer who shall be the administrative officer of the Association and Director of the Central Office. The chief staff officer's official title shall be determined by the Board of Directors. The chief staff officer shall be responsible for the staff, their hiring, training, performance, and termination. The chief staff officer shall perform such duties as may be assigned by the Board of Directors and Council or as may be prescribed in these Bylaws. Confirmation of the chief staff officer shall be by a two-thirds vote of those Council members voting. The chief staff officer shall be confirmed for a term not to exceed five years and may be reconfirmed. During this term the chief staff officer shall not hold any other office within the Association or any of its Divisions or State,[or] Provincial, or Territorial Psychological Associations.
Article X - Nominations and Elections
4. Forty-five days after mailing a final ballot, the Election Committee shall close the election and shall make a preferential count of the election ballot. Tie votes shall be resolved by lot. The Election Committee shall also secure reports from the Divisions and from the State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Associations of the results of all elections conducted by them. The election results shall be reported by the Election Committee to the Board of Directors and Council within thirty days after the ballot closes.
Article XI - Boards and Committees
7. The Policy and Planning Board shall consist of not fewer than nine Members of the Association, three of whom shall be elected each year and each of whom shall serve for an initial term of not less than three years. The Policy and Planning Board shall be selected to represent the range of active interests within the Association. No person shall be eligible to serve more than two consecutive terms. The Policy and Planning Board's function shall be the consideration of current and long-range policy. As a continuing body, it shall recommend to the Members, Board of Directors, and Council such changes in existing policy and such extensions or restrictions of the functions of the Association, its Divisions, or State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Associations as are consonant with the purposes of the Association. The Policy and Planning Board shall report annually by publication to the membership. It shall review the structure and function of the Association as a whole in every fifth year and shall make recommendations by written report to Council and by publication to the Association.
Article XIII - State,[and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Associations
1. A State,[and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Association may, upon vote of Council, be affiliated with the American Psychological Association, provided that ten or more of its members are Members of the American Psychological Association. Continuing affiliation shall depend upon the State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association's conforming to the purposes and stated policies of the Association. For the purposes of organization, the District of Columbia, the territories and commonwealths of the United States, and the provinces of Canada are to be regarded as the equivalent of states. In areas where there are relatively few psychologists, an organization extending beyond state boundaries may be affiliated, so long as it does not include an area in which there is a State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association.
2. A State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association shall be representative of all the scientific and professional interests of psychologists within the state/province/territory. Its name should be the name of the state/province/territory, followed by the words 'Psychological Association.' Its objectives shall fall within the scope of those specified in Article I of these Bylaws, and its membership shall not be restricted on any basis other than psychological interests and qualifications or place of residence or work. The term State,[and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Association, as used in these Bylaws, shall mean a State,[and] Provincial, and Territorial Association affiliated with the Association.
3. Each State,[and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Association shall exercise such control over its membership that membership in the State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association shall not imply membership in the American Psychological Association.
4. In the event that Council finds that the conditions of affiliation are not being fulfilled by a State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association or that its affiliation is no longer in the best interest of the American Psychological Association, the principal officers of the State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association shall be so informed and the affiliation may thereafter be terminated by a two-thirds vote of Council.
5. In matters of mutual concern to the State,[and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Associations and the Association, it shall be the responsibility of the American Psychological Association to encourage and assist the State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association in taking responsible action and, when advisable, to formulate standards of uniform practice that will guide the State,[and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Associations. It shall be the responsibility of each State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association to keep the Association and other State,[and]Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Associations adequately informed of actions affecting the welfare of psychologists beyond its own state boundaries.
6. The Association shall not be responsible for the acts or omissions of its State,[and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Association Affiliates, except as specifically authorized by these Bylaws or other duly promulgated rule of Council.
Article XVI - Central Office
1. The Association shall maintain a Central Office for the promotion of the objectives of the Association, its Divisions, and State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Associations. The Central Office shall be established at such a place and with such facilities and functions as Council may direct. The chief staff officer shall be the Director of the Central Office. He/She shall report annually on the operations of the Central Office to the Board of Directors, to Council, and by publication to the membership.
In 10-4. APPLICATION PROCEDURES
APA may seek evidence from schools and universities that the candidate has attended, state/provincial/territorial or local psychological associations, professional employers, and/or other appropriate sources of information, when the submitted documentation leaves doubt as to the applicant's qualifications for membership in the Association.
In 30-8. STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES
30-8.3 Proposed standards or guidelines or other documents that have the effect of a standard or guideline should be sent to the APA Office of General Counsel for initial legal review regarding risk to the association or its members. The proposing entity shall suggest a period, not to exceed 10 years, for which the standard or guideline will be effective if it is approved along with a rationale for the proposed timeframe. The maximum period of effectiveness is appropriate for areas in which the knowledge base, practice patterns, and relevant legal and regulatory climate are stable. In most areas, an earlier expiration date (e.g., 5 years, 7 years) will be more appropriate.
Following initial legal review, a proposed new standard or guideline or an amendment to an existing standard or guideline shall be introduced as a new business item at Council and circulated to APA boards and committees for comment. At the same time, the proposing entity shall invite expert commentary and consultation from other appropriate groups or individuals and from all divisions and state,[and] provincial, and territorial psychological associations. The proposing entity shall respond to all commentary, seek additional legal review if appropriate and forward a revised document to all divisions and state,[and] provincial, and territorial psychological associations and groups that provided commentary. The revised draft version of standards and guidelines shall be forwarded to the Office of General Counsel in order to disseminate to the membership notice of a 90-day comment period and instructions for the receipt of comments. At the conclusion of the comment period, the proposing entity shall make any appropriate changes and respond to all comments received. The proposing entity shall provide the draft standards and guidelines along with copies of the comments and responses to comments to the Office of General Counsel for a second legal review and determination of whether further public comment is required.
90-2. COMMITTEE FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE
90-2.1 There shall be a Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice whose responsibility it shall be to (a) be the administrative agent of the Board of Directors exercising general governance supervision over the relevant affairs of the Practice Directorate, (b) recommend to Council through the Board of Directors procedures for the enhancement of human welfare through the professional practice of psychology, (c) identify projects important to the enhancement of human welfare through professional practice of psychology, and (d) recommend to the Board of Directors the needed funding for such projects.
The Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice shall consist of nine regular members and up to two special members. The APA Treasurer shall be an ex officio, nonvoting member of the Committee. The Board of Directors may also appoint such liaisons to the Committee for Advancement of Professional Practice as it deems necessary. Regular members shall be psychologists who provide health care services, who are licensed to practice psychology in at least one state, district, [or] province, or territory, and who pay the annual assessment. In addition to these general qualifications, the regular members of the Committee shall possess experience in service delivery and in the governance of state/provincial/territorial and/or national psychological organizations, and will have demonstrated expertise in one or more of the following additional areas of experience: (a) advocacy (legislative or legal), (b) marketing, (c) the training of practicing psychologists, and (d) public information and education. Of the nine regular members, three shall be elected each year to serve a term of three years.
110-7. GUIDELINES FOR THE CONDUCT OF PRESIDENT-ELECT NOMINATIONS AND ELECTIONS
In A. Eligibility, Published Statements, Campaign Restrictions
6. Appropriateness of campaign methods and expenditures. Expenditure of the candidate's own funds or those of other individuals or organizations for mass communication has traditionally been regarded as undesirable and inappropriate. However, it is acceptable for APA divisions, state/provincial/territorial psychological associations, and established continuing coalitions to give their support to particular candidates in their newsletters or via electronic communications (electronic mail, electronic bulletins or faxing) to an established network. Recipients of campaign material that goes beyond such endorsements should understand that campaigning by expensive mass communication strains the political fabric of APA and be wary of it. The membership is put on notice that "caveat emptor" applies in regard to political communications.
7. Use of APA mailing labels. The use of APA mailing labels on behalf of candidates for office in APA, divisions, or state/provincial/territorial psychological associations is not approved. Additionally, APA will not sell or provide mailing labels for campaign purposes.
In C. Promulgation of These Guidelines
The guidelines in their entirety shall appear in the December or January and the May issues of the APA Monitor on Psychology. Each January the Election Committee will send the guidelines to divisions, state/provincial/territorial psychological associations, coalitions, and newsletter editors.
110-15. ELECTION OF STANDING BOARD AND COMMITTEE MEMBERS
110-15.1 Elections of standing board and committee members are conducted by Central Office; nominating candidates for various offices to be filled by election of Council shall be the responsibility of the Board of Directors. The chief staff officer shall request suggestions of persons to serve on boards or committees from officers of divisions and state/provincial/territorial psychological associations, chairs of boards and committees, and the general membership. The list of persons shall be available to the various boards and committees when they are preparing nominations.
In 120-4. CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION COMMITTEE
120-4.2 The Continuing Education Committee shall have responsibility for developing policy and program recommendations for the Association's continuing education program and for working collaboratively with the APA Office of Continuing Education to implement these policy and program recommendations. The Committee's tasks shall include, but not be limited to (a) developing and delivering continuing education programs and products; (b) providing educational and technical assistance to APA Directorates, Divisions, State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Associations, and other sponsors; (c) collaborating with organizations that seek to become approved sponsors of continuing education; (d) providing review of all APA approved sponsors and organizations seeking APA sponsor approval; (e) periodically reviewing the Association's sponsor approval guidelines, and (f) identifying, promoting, implementing and evaluating research, development and innovations in continuing education.
120-4.3 The Chair of the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA) shall each year forward to APA's divisions and affiliated state,[and] provincial, and territorial psychological associations a general call for nominees to serve on the Committee and shall also direct a formal request for nominee recommendations to the Board of Scientific Affairs, Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest, Board of Professional Affairs, and the Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice. In making its appointments, BEA shall attempt to insure that the membership of the Committee shall represent APA's commitment to honor diversity and as well to ensure the representation of the needs of various groups served by continuing education.
150-7. COMMITTEE ON AGING
APA: Serve as a visible focus for the coordination of information among groups within
APA that address aging issues and offer consultation to relevant APA boards, committees, divisions, state/provincial/territorial psychological associations, and directorates; also ensure that older members of APA receive the appropriate attention of the association.
In 200-1. LOCATION, FUNCTION, AND MISSION
200-1.2 The functions of the Central Office shall be the administration and the business management of the affairs of the Association except where these are specifically delegated to officers or to parts of the APA such as the divisions or state/provincial/territorial psychological associations.
200-5. PLACEMENT ACTIVITIES AND EMPLOYMENT BULLETIN
200-5.1 The Central Office shall maintain a register of available psychologists and opportunities for employment in such form as the chief staff officer finds best. It shall provide facilities at the annual convention for the exchange of information about employment. Fees may be charged for listing positions and listing availability of individuals, but these may be waived by the chief staff officer for groups and individuals when it is in the interest of the profession to do so. The APA reserves the right to refuse any listing where the nature or conditions of employment are contrary to the policies of the Association. It shall also provide facilities for the exchange of information about employment at regional or state/provincial/territorial psychological meetings on a cost-reimbursable basis. The sponsoring regional or state/provincial/territorial psychological association will retain fees charged applicants and employers. The regional or state/provincial/territorial psychological association will continue to pay the costs they now pay, such as convention-site operational costs. Costs are allocated in accordance with standard functional cost accounting procedures used by the APA.
200-8. PUBLIC RELATIONS
200-8.1 The chief staff officer may designate a member of the Central Office staff to assist in preparing and disseminating information about the activities of psychologists of interest to the public. When it is practical, the APA shall assist regional or state/provincial/territorial psychological associations in the area of public information.
C.(12) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the Division of Trauma Psychology, Division 56 of APA, as a permanent APA division.
D.(13) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve amending Association Rule 90-7 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
There shall be a Committee on Division/APA Relations (CODAPAR) which shall be generally concerned with the mutual involvement of divisions and APA in fostering psychology as a science, as a profession, and as a means of promoting human welfare and shall: (1) serve an advisory function to the Division Services Office and Chief Executive Officer on the mutual implication and impact of activities of APA and divisions: (2) provide leadership to facilitate coordination and communication among divisions and between divisions and APA; (3) make proposals to enhance structural, functional, and policy relations between APA and divisions; (4) plan and host the Division Leadership Conference; (5) provide leadership in developing training programs for division officers at the Division Leadership Conference, the APA annual meeting, or other such forums, to enhance the functioning and benefits offered by divisions; and (6) act as a facilitator in resolution of disputes among divisions.
CODAPAR shall consist of six members, each serving a three-year term, and shall report to Council through the Board of Directors. Two new members of CODAPAR will be appointed annually. Nominations will be solicited from divisions, with each division invited to submit a nominee for CODAPAR. Eligible nominees are APA members who are [the division's president or another officer or board member for that division] or have been divisional officers, board members or have had significant governance experience within or across divisions. Upon receipt of division nominations, CODAPAR will submit to the Board of Directors a listing of nominees along with its recommendation for achieving balance in representation of the broad interests of divisions as designated in defined slates. The Board of Directors will appoint two new members annually.
E.(14) The Board voted to approve the recommendations set forth by the Committee on Division/APA Relations in funding six interdivisional grant projects.
F.(15) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the following substitute motion originated by the Board:
VI. ORGANIZATION OF THE APA
A.(16) The Board discussed the item "Proposed Association Rule 30-9: Public Policy Statements and Resolutions."
B.(17) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve amending Association Rule 30-6 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
30-6.1 A specific motion shall be transmitted in the following manner: (a) a motion introduced by a Council representative shall first be reviewed by the chair of CSFC, in consultation with appropriate APA staff and the Agenda Planning Group; (b) a motion forwarded by a committee shall be transmitted either to the board listed in Association Rule 50-5 or directly to the Board of Directors, if no other board is specified; (c) a motion forwarded by a board other than the Board of Directors shall be transmitted directly to the Board of Directors; and (d) the Board of Directors shall develop an agenda for Council. In so doing, the Board of Directors shall transmit all motions from boards, committees, and Council representatives to Council, unless otherwise provided in the APA Bylaws or in the Association Rules.
The Board of Directors will provide a rationale whenever its recommendation to the Council of Representatives is to alter or oppose the main motion.
30-6.2 [Council may Adopt, File, Refer or Reject a report from a board, committee, task force, division or other body of APA. The motion to Adopt a report commits Council to the approval of the opinions and activities described, and thus, constitutes APA policy. However, in order to be implemented, recommendations contained in the report must be further presented to Council as main motions, with the usual accompanying information on fiscal implications and what entity has the responsibility to carry out the actions contemplated. If Council is asked to adopt a report that includes appendices, the motion to Council shall include a recommendation as to whether the appendices shall be filed or adopted. The motion to File a report or appendix makes it available for information and reference but commits APA to nothing. This report that has been filed by Council, whether posted on the APA web site or distributed in hard copy or other format, shall
include a disclaimer on each page of the report stating that the report has been filed by Council but has not been adopted as a policy of APA, and therefore does not commit APA to the opinions or activities described therein. Recommendations proposed in a report that has been filed may be adopted by Council in the manner described above. The motion to Refer a report may send the report back to the originator(s) of the document or to other APA entities to address Council's questions or concerns. Council Rejects a report if it does not Adopt, File or Refer the document.]
30-6.2 Reports from a board or committee, task force, or any other component or affiliate of APA are intended to provide and summarize knowledge in order to inform and educate. Such reports commissioned and produced under the auspices of APA become the property of the Association. Each report should reference existing APA policies on the topic at hand. Task force reports and other reports, where appropriate, shall include an executive summary comprising a synopsis of the report. The executive summary shall include recommendations and suggested policy statements based on key findings that can be developed into action items for Council to consider.
Reports never constitute APA policy, but rather serve as background material for future reference and use. Statements of policy and other recommendations emanating from reports must come before the Council as main motions, with the usual accompanying information on fiscal implications and recommendations as to the appropriate entity that would have the responsibility to carry out the action(s) contemplated.
Council may vote to receive, refer, or reject a report. Council votes to receive a report when a majority of its members, present and voting, generally agree with the contents of the report. When Council receives a report, the contents do not become APA policy nor do the proposed recommendations become implemented without passage of separate main motions. Distribution of received reports may occur via posting on the APA Web site and/or in other formats. Received reports shall include the following statement presented with high visibility on one of the introductory pages: "APA reports synthesize current psychological knowledge in a given area and may offer recommendations for future action. They do not constitute APA policy nor commit APA to the activities described therein. This particular report originated with the APA (insert the name of the governance body)."
The motion to refer a report may send the report back to the originator(s) of the document or to other APA entities to address Council's questions, concerns, or for further study. The consideration of the report by Council may be postponed to a later date.
When Council rejects a report, it remains the property of APA. The report does not constitute APA policy and, in the interest of accuracy, APA requests that any reference to this report state that it was rejected by APA Council. Any copy of the report shall include the following statement on each page: "This report was prepared by the APA (insert name of governance body) but was rejected by the APA Council of Representatives."
C.(37) The Board received as information the Policy and Planning Board's feedback on the item "Representation on the Board of Directors and Allocation of Resources Across the Four Directorates."
VII. PUBLICATIONS AND DATABASES
A.(18) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve amending the Association Rule 170-8 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
[170-8.4 The chief staff officer shall be responsible for establishing and distributing back stocks of journals for a period of at least five years.]
170-[8.5] 8.4 The chief staff officer shall periodically secure competitive bids for the printing of journals.
VIII. CONVENTION AFFAIRS
A.(19) The Board voted to approve San Francisco, California as the site for the 2018 Convention with the dates of Thursday, August 9 through Sunday, August 12, 2018.
IX. EDUCATIONAL AFFAIRS
A.(20) The Board voted to recommend that Council adopt as APA policy the revised Principles for the Recognition of Specialties in Professional Psychology.
B.(21) The Board voted to approve forwarding the revised Principles for the Recognition of Proficiencies in Professional Psychology to all APA boards and committees and other relevant groups, including the Council of Specialties and groups that represent approved proficiencies, for review and comment.
C.(22) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the following amendments to Association Rule 90-5: (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
There shall be a Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology. The Commission shall: (a) facilitate the development, implementation and review of effective and coordinated policies and procedures to improve quality and process in recognition of specialties and proficiencies in professional psychology; (b) review petitions from [petitioning] organizations requesting the Association's recognition of a professional specialty or proficiency; [and (b)] (c) establish mechanisms for the periodic evaluation and renewal of such recognition; and (d) make recommendations regarding consistency in the use of the terms "specialty" and "proficiency" by the Association. The Commission shall select from among recognition petitions it reviews those deemed appropriate to recommend to the Council of Representatives as meriting formal confirmation. Council shall confirm the recognition of a specialty or proficiency in professional psychology only when such recommendation for recognition shall have been placed before it by the Commission following the completion of an evaluation conducted according to the Commission's procedures.
Subject to review by the Board of Directors, the Commission shall have the authority for adopting procedures for reviewing specialty and proficiency petitions. The Commission [also] may make proposals to the Council of Representatives [for amendments] regarding: (a) [to] the principles that define specialties and proficiencies and [to] the criteria for their recognition; and (b) [to] the processes by which the Association confers and maintains its recognition of specialties and proficiencies.
The Commission shall consist of nine Commissioners serving staggered terms of three years each. Commissioners shall be limited to two successive full terms of service and may not further succeed themselves without a break in such service. With the exception of a Public Commissioner, all Commissioners must be licensed psychologists and members of the Association. Commissioners shall be nominated also in such a fashion that insures representation among them of (a) the broad scope of the practice of professional psychology, its scientific bases, and the Association's commitment to diversity and the public interest, and (b) an array of expertise in such matters as professional education, practitioner credentialing, program accreditation, continuing professional development, the identification of emerging patterns of practice, and legal and regulatory affairs.
Eight of the Commissioners shall be elected by the Council of Representatives from slates prepared by the following: BSA and BAPPI shall prepare nominations for one Commissioner seat each; BEA shall prepare nominations for three Commissioner seats; BPA and CAPP shall jointly prepare nominations for three Commissioner seats. In preparing slates for a vacancy in its reserved seat or seats and following solicitation from the general membership of the Association, each nominating board or committee shall forward to the Commission for transmission to the Board of Directors the names of five qualified and appropriate candidates per vacancy. The Board of Directors shall then compose a final slate of three of the five nominees for that vacancy from each nominating unit to be submitted to the Council of Representatives for election.
The ninth Commission seat shall be reserved for a Public Member who shall not be a psychologist. The Public Member shall be appointed by the Board of Directors.
The Commission shall report to the Council of Representatives through the Board of Directors.
D.(23) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve an increase in the High School Teacher Affiliate fees and the Community College Teacher Affiliate fees to $40 per year effective for the 2009 dues cycle and that an automatic fees increase mechanism be instituted that would adjust APA High School and Community College Teacher Affiliate fees every year, based on the CPI.
E.(24) The Board voted to approve the revised Accreditation Operating Procedures.
F.(25) The Board voted to approve the following motion:
Dr. Koocher abstained from voting on this item.
G.(38) The Board received as information an update on the Institute for High School Psychology Teachers.
H.(39) The Board received as information the Revised Petition for the Recognition of Specialties in Professional Psychology.
I.(40) The Board received as information an update on the Task Force on Taxonomy: Developing a Structure for Specialties, Specialists and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology.
X. PROFESSIONAL AFFAIRS
A.(26) The item "General Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services" was withdrawn.
B.(41) The Board received as information an update on the Revision of APA's Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists.
XI. SCIENTIFIC AFFAIRS
A.(27) The Board voted to recommend that Council reject the main motion of the item "Support for Social Psychology Network (NBI #31):" The Board agreed with the rationale of the Board of Scientific Affairs and other boards and committees that APA is currently rebuilding its own website at a major expense and it is not in the Association's best interest to commit to an annual contribution of $60,000.
B.(42) The Board received as information the Statement on Third Party Observers in Psychological Testing and Assessment: A Framework for Decision Makers.
A.(28) The Board voted to allocate one hour of convention programming time to the Task Force on Appropriate Responses to Sexual Orientation for a symposium on their Final Report and Resolution.
B.(29) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve amending Association Rule 105-2.1 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
150-2.1 There shall be a Committee on Women in Psychology that shall concern itself with furthering the major purpose of the APA - "to advance psychology as a science and a profession and as a means of promoting health, education and human welfare" - by ensuring that women in all their diversity achieve equality within the psychological community and in the larger society, nationally and globally [as members of the psychological community] in order that all human resources be fully actualized. Its mission shall be [that of] to function[ing] as a catalyst[,] by means of interacting with and making recommendations to the various parts of the APA's governing structure, to the APA's membership, and particularly to the Society for the Psychology of Women, [as well as to other relevant groups, such as the] Association [of] for Women in Psychology, [the Federation of Organizations for Professional Women, and the National Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology.] and other relevant organizations, including groups whose missions address the status of women. Specifically, the Committee will undertake the following priority tasks: (a) collection of information and documentation concerning the status of women; (b) [continued] development of recommendations [and implementation of guidelines] relevant to women; (c) monitoring the implementation of guidelines and recommendations from reports issued by APA that are relevant to women; (d) development of mechanisms to increase the participation of women in roles and functions both within and outside [of] the profession; [and (d)] (e) ongoing communications with other agencies and institutions regarding the status of women; and (f) monitoring current issues relevant to the lives of women in order to inform policy.
The Committee shall consist of six members who are elected for staggered terms of three years. It shall report to Council through the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest.
C.(30) The Board voted to recommend that Council adopt as APA policy the following Resolution on the Americans with Disabilities Act:
Resolution on the Americans with Disabilities Act
WHEREAS the population of people with disabilities is increasing among all age groups (Field & Jette, 2007);
WHEREAS census data, national polls, and other studies have documented that people with disabilities are more likely to be severely disadvantaged socially, vocationally, economically, and educationally (ADA, 1990);
WHEREAS persons with disabilities are often denied access to services, and are denied appropriate accommodations and resources to fully participate in education and training programs, employment, and the political process (e.g., Hauser, Maxwell-McCaw, Leigh, & Gutman, 2000; Roessler, & Sumner, 1997);
WHEREAS psychological research has shown that a variety of psychological and sociological mechanisms jeopardize relationships between people with and without disabilities, increasing the likelihood of prejudice against individuals with disabilities, along with stereotyping, stigmatization, psychological discomfort, avoidance, and patronization (e.g., Banks & Kaschak, 2003; Fine & Asch, 1988; Katz, Hass, & Bailey, 1988; Longmore & Umansky, 2001; Wright, 1988);
WHEREAS psychological research has been able to demonstrate significant deleterious health and mental health effects for victims of discrimination (e.g., Markowitz, 1998; Wahl, 1999; Williams & Williams-Morris, 2000);
WHEREAS some persons with disability also experience oppression due to their racial/ethnic identity, gender identity, sexual orientation, and/or gender expression (transgender, transsexual);
WHEREAS it is essential for psychologists to understand how stereotypical and stigmatizing language, attitudes, and behaviors can demean and devalue people with disabilities and have an adverse impact on self concept, self esteem, self efficacy, and relationships with others;
WHEREAS the APA has endorsed a set of Ethical Principles for Psychologists that recognize the dignity and worth of all people, including their right to self-determination, and the duty of psychologists to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons (APA, 2002);
WHEREAS over the past several years, the APA, through legislative efforts, has affirmed its opposition to discrimination and stereotyping based on aging, gender, race, disability, sexual orientation, and ethnicity;
WHEREAS the APA through education and training has contributed to increasing awareness of discrimination and stereotyping based on gender, race, disability, sexual orientation, and ethnicity;
WHEREAS the APA was instrumental in the development and passage of the ADA in 1990 - a landmark piece of civil rights legislation;
WHEREAS Congress, in enacting the ADA has recognized that persons with mental and physical disabilities have a history of being subjected to unequal treatment, and that the nation's goals regarding individuals with disabilities are to assure equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency (ADA, 1990);
WHEREAS Congress, in enacting the ADA, has intentionally provided a clear and comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities in addition to defining a central role for the federal government in enforcing the standards of the ADA on behalf of individuals with disabilities (ADA, 1990);
WHEREAS Congress, in enacting the ADA, recognized the critical need to address the unnecessary institutionalization of individuals with disabilities and concluded that failure to serve such individuals in the most integrated setting appropriate to their needs is a form of discrimination (Olmstead v. L.C., 1999); and
WHEREAS despite the great strides that people with disabilities have made with the benefit of the ADA, barriers remain.
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED THAT
The American Psychological Association (APA) reaffirms its opposition to discrimination based on disability status, and promotes full implementation of the ADA;
The APA vigilantly seeks to ameliorate adverse mental health effects of discrimination against people with visible and invisible disabilities;
The APA encourages the reduction of stigma and discrimination against people with disabilities through education and training;
The APA supports the use of services, supports, and environments that are least restrictive, most integrating, and most effective in allowing people with mental and physical disabilities to participate in their communities;
The APA pursues activities at the federal level and with its state psychological associations, and in international contexts where appropriate to ensure that the spirit and founding provisions of the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 are maintained, implemented, and enforced.
American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Accessed at http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html.
Americans with Disabilities Act, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq. (1990).
Banks, M. E., & Kaschak, E. (Eds.) (2003). Women with visible and invisible disabilities: Multiple intersections, multiple issues, multiple therapies. New York: Haworth Press.
Field, M., & Jette, A. (Eds.). (2007). The future of disability in America. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Fine, M., & Asch, A. (1988). Disability beyond stigma: Social interaction, discrimination, and activism. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 3-21.
Hauser, P. C., Maxwell-McCaw, D. L., Leigh, I. W., & Gutman, V. A. (2000). Internship accessibility issues for deaf and hard-of-hearing applications: No cause for complacency. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 31, 569-574.
Katz, I., Hass, R. G., & Bailey, J. (1988). Attitudinal ambivalence and behavior toward people with disabilities. In H. E. Yuker (Ed.), Attitudes toward persons with disabilities (pp. 47-57). New York: Springer.
Longmore, P. K., & Umansky, L. (Eds.). (2001). The new disability history: American perspectives [The History of Disability Series]. New York: New York University Press.
Markowitz, F. E. (1998). The effects of stigma on the psychological well-being and life satisfaction of persons with mental illness. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 39, 335-348.
Olmstead v. L.C., 527 U.S. 581 (1999).
Roessler, R. T., & Sumner, G. (1997). Employer opinion about accommodating employees with chronic illnesses. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 28, 29-34.
Wahl, O. F. (1999). Mental health consumers' experience of stigma. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 25, 467-478. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce.
Williams, D., & Williams-Morris, R. (2000). Racism and mental health: The African American experience. Ethnicity & Health, 5(3/4), 243-268.
Wright, B. (1988). Attitudes and the fundamental negative bias: Conditions and corrections. In H.E. Yuker (Ed.), Attitudes toward persons with disabilities (pp. 3-21). New York: Springer.
D.(31) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the following motion:
E.(43) The Board received as information a report on APA's involvement in the International Network on Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Concerns and Transgender Issues in Psychology.
F.(44) The Board received as information a report from the Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation.
XIII. ETHNIC MINORITY AFFAIRS
XIV. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
A.(32) The Board voted to recommend that APA adopt as APA policy the following Resolution Against Genocide:
Resolution Against Genocide
Throughout human history and continuing to the present, the issue of genocide or mass violence has been a devastating reality (Staub, 2000). Psychology is in a unique position to both inform our understanding of the causes and solutions to genocide (Munn, 2006; Sternberg, 2003). While governments and the United Nations work to address this life altering and history altering crisis, Non-Governmental Organizations, such as the American Psychological Association, have the skills, knowledge, and expertise to increase awareness and ultimately bring about peace and reconciliation (Howe, 2004). In keeping with its charge, APA's Committee on International Relations in Psychology and Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs call on all psychologists to respond to this global continuing crisis with the unique contribution that can be made by mental health educators, researchers, and counselors.
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association has demonstrated its commitment to the fight for human rights of all people through (1) its resolutions against racism, stereotypes, and male violence against women, (2) the establishment of the Committee on International Relations in Psychology, the Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs, and the Committee on Women in Psychology and (3) its ongoing support for the efforts of the United Nations to promote and defend human rights (Bryant-Davis, Okorodudu, Holliday, 2004);
WHEREAS the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide defines the term as: Any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group (United Nations, 1948);
WHEREAS "unintentional" or indirect acts of destruction such as forced marching and forced starvation are also crimes against humanity;
WHEREAS genocide is the ultimate display of hate, fear, and violence, which are learned attitudes and behaviors; (Staub, 2006: Dutton, Boyanowsky, & Bond, 2005; Sternberg, 2003);
WHEREAS genocide can be an outgrowth of multiple factors including promotion of self advancement at the cost of other's human rights; crisis of resources, compliance with authoritarian leaderships, and prejudice which is unfavorable affective reactions or evaluations of groups and their members (Waller, 2006; Finzsch, 2005);
WHEREAS genocide threatens basic human rights of survival, security, development, and social participation (Lang, 2006; Mork, 2003);
WHEREAS genocide has negative cognitive, behavioral, affective, relational, and spiritual effects on child and adult victims, as well as on perpetrators, historically and contemporarily (Dutton, Boyanowsky, & Bond, 2005; Ursano, Fullterton, & Norwood, 2003; van der Kolk, McFarlane, & Weisaeth, 1996);
WHEREAS genocide is often combined with systematic rape and displacement of victims and severe mental health consequences for survivors of genocide that have been shown to increase anxiety, depression, self-defeating thoughts, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, suicide, homicide, and a host of health complications in targeted communities (Bolton, 2001; Staub, 1999; Herman, 1997);
WHEREAS genocide has been shown to severely alter the developmental trajectory of children who are exposed to it by negatively impacting academic and social development, self-esteem, and self-efficacy (Kaplan, 2006, Dyregrov, Gupta, Gjestad, & Mukanoheli, 2000);
WHEREAS genocide intersects with race, ethnicity, gender, and socio-economic status in ways that are unique in creating disenfranchisement and environments of vulnerability; (Gangoli, 2006; Bryant-Davis, 2005; Lindsey, 2002; Moses, 2002; Bhavnani, & Backer, 2000)
WHEREAS genocide has long term intergenerational traumatic effects on whole communities (Kaplan, 2006; Ritchie, Watson, & Friedman, 2005; Briere, 2004; Staub, 2000);
WHEREAS the United Nations has established genocide and systematic rape as crimes against humanity (United Nations, 2004; Osborn, 2001);
WHEREAS genocide negatively affects perpetrators by perpetuating distorted thinking about the self and others, including cognitions that dehumanize those who are targeted (Staub, Pearlman, Gubin, & Hagengimana, 2005; Staub, 2004);
WHEREAS genocide has negative effects on intergroup relations, magnifying distrust, fear, vigilance, suspicion, anxiety, stereotypes, and disconnection (Kressel, 2003; Bolton, 2001);
WHEREAS genocide continues to occur throughout human history (Lal, 2005);
WHEREAS the psychological devastation of genocide has been established in psychological studies of the genocides of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas, Africans in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, Jewish people in the Holocaust, Armenians in 1915, the Tutsis in Rwanda, Cambodians, Guatemalans, Ukrainians, Chinese in the Nanking Massacre, Muslims in Bosnia, and most currently the Black people of the Darfur region of the Sudan where assaults against the Black Sudanese have resulted in the murder of more than 450,000 persons , the rape of countless women and girls, and the displacement of 2.5 million persons (Bush, 2007; Lippman, 2007; Hinton, 2005; Steinweis, 2005; Austin, 2004; Midlarsky & Midlarsky, 2004; Mueller, 2004; Beristain, Paez, & González, 2000; Elovitz, 1999);
WHEREAS the struggle against genocide requires continued active resistance through science and practice that promotes social justice and human rights globally (McMillion, 2005; Howe, 2004; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2004);
WHEREAS passive observation of violent acts (the "bystander effect") has negative consequences on individuals and communities (Lippman, 2007; Fischer, Greitemeyer, Pollozek, & Frey, 2006);
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association opposes all manifestation of hate, prejudice, discrimination, and violence and affirms the basic human rights of all people for survival, equality, dignity, respect, and liberty (Kahn, 1985);
WHEREAS psychological science and practice can inform reconciliation processes (Staub, 2006; Munn, 2006; McMillion, 2005; Suedfeld, 2000);
Therefore be it resolved that the American Psychological Association condemns genocide wherever it occurs across the globe and confirms that all people have the right to survival and safety;
Be it further resolved that the American Psychological Association will recommend:
(1) That the international community, professional organizations, and individual psychologists work toward the development of policies that work to eradicate and prevent genocide and to ameliorate its impact on individuals and communities.
(2) The development of research that fosters our understanding of the causes, effects, and solutions to race-based and ethnicity-based hate crimes.
(3) The implementation of interventions that promote equality, social justice, and reconciliation across cultures.
(4) The exploration of the gendered experience of genocide including systematic rape.
(5) The awareness raising of psychologists and psychologists-in-training about the prevalence and impact of genocide through curriculum development, conference presentation, research dissemination, and use of media outlets.
(6) The promulgation of psychological strategies to promote the recovery of victims, community reconciliation, and human rights for all persons.
Austin, A. (2004). Explanation and Responsibility: Agency and Motive in Lynching and Genocide. Journal of Black Studies, 34(5), 719-733.
Beristain, C., Paez, D., & González, J. (2000). Rituals, social sharing, silence, emotions and collective memory claims in the case of the Guatemalan genocide. Psicothema, 12, 117-130.
Bhavnani, R., & Backer, D. (2000). Localized ethnic conflict and genocide: Accounting for differences in Rwanda and Burundi. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44(3), 283-306.
Bolton, P. (2001). Local perceptions of the mental health effects of the Rwandan genocide. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189(4), 243-248.
Briere, J. (2006). Principles of Trauma Therapy : A Guide to Symptoms, Evaluation and Treatment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc
Bryant-Davis, T., Okorodudu, C., & Holliday, B. (2004). Combating racism: The role of psychologists and the United Nations. The psychology of prejudice and discrimination: Racism in America, Vol. 1 (pp. 223-235). Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
Bryant-Davis, T. (2005). Thriving in the wake of trauma: A multicultural guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bush, G. (2007). Speech given at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved on May 8, 2007 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/04/20070418.html
Dutton, D., Boyanowsky, E., & Bond, M. (2005). Extreme mass homicide: From military massacre to genocide. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10(4), 437-473.
Dyregrov, A., Gupta, L., Gjestad, R., & Mukanoheli, E. (2000). Trauma exposure and psychological reactions to genocide among Rwandan children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(1), 3-21.
Elovitz, P. (1999). War, trauma, genocide, and Kosovo in the news and classroom. Journal of Psychohistory, 27(2), 188-199.
Finzsch, N. (2005). 'It is scarcely possible to conceive that human beings could be so hideous and loathsome': Discourses of genocide in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century America and Australia. Patterns of Prejudice, 39(2), 97-115.
Fischer, P., Greitemeyer, T., Pollozek, F., & Frey, D. (2006). The unresponsive bystander: Are bystanders more responsive in dangerous emergencies? European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(2), 267-278.
Foa, E., Keane, T., & Friedman, M. (2004). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York, NY: The Guilford Press
Gangoli, G. (2006). Engendering genocide: Gender, conflict and violence. Women's Studies International Forum, 29(5), 534-538.
Herman, J. (1997). Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence-from Domestic Abuse to Political Terror. New York, NY: BASIC BOOKS
Hinton, A. (2005). Why did they kill? Cambodia in the shadow of genocide. University of California Press.
Howe, T. (2004). Lessons Learned From Political Violence and Genocide in Teaching a Psychology of Peace: An Interview With Linda Woolf. Teaching of Psychology, 31(2), 149-149.
Kahn, A. (1985). Victims of crime and violence: Final report of the APA Task Force on the Victims of Crime and Violence. American Psychological Association.
Kaplan, S. (2006). Children in genocide: Extreme traumatization and the 'affect propeller.'. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 87(3), 725-746.
Kressel, N. (2003). Mass hate: The global rise of genocide and terror. Revised and updated. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191(2), 134-134.
Lal, V. (2005). The concentration camp and development: The pasts and future of genocide. Patterns of Prejudice, 39(2), 220-243.
Lang, J. (2006). Genocide in the Shadow of Democracy. The Psycho-Politics of Modern Mass Murder. Psyke & Logos, 27(1), 72-88.
Lindsey, R. (2002). From atrocity to data: Historiographies of rape in Former Yugoslavia and the gendering of genocide. Patterns of Prejudice, 36(4), 59-78.
Lippman, M. (2007). Darfur: the politics of genocide denial syndrome. Journal of Genocide Research 9 (2); 193-213
McMillion, M. (2005). An Intervention That Offers Hope to Post-Genocide Societies. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 24(3), 338-340.
Midlarsky, E., & Midlarsky, M. (2004). Echoes of Genocide: Trauma and Ethnic Identity Among European Immigrants. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 28(2), 38-53.
Mork, G. (2003). Fundamentals of Genocide Scholarship. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 9(2), 175-176.
Moses, A. (2002). Conceptual blockages and definitional dilemmas in the 'racial century': Genocides of indigenous peoples and the Holocaust. Patterns of Prejudice, 36(4), 7-36.
Mueller, A. (2004). Affirming Denial through Preemptive Apologia: The Case of The Armenian Genocide Resolution. Western Journal of Communication, 68(1), 24-44.
Munn, S. (2006). Dialogue Toward Agenocide: Encountering the Other in the Context of Genocide. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46(3), 281-302.
Osborn, A. (2001). Mass rape ruled a war crime. The Guardian International February 23, 2001. Retrieved on May 8, 2007 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,441855,00.html
Ritchie, E., Watson, P., & Friedman, M. (2005). Interventions Following Mass Violence and Disasters: Strategies for Mental Health Practice. New York, NY: The Guilford Press
Sternberg, R. (2003). A duplex theory of hate: Development and application to terrorism, massacres, and genocide. Review of General Psychology, 7(3), 299-328.
Staub, E. (2006). Reconciliation after Genocide, Mass Killing, or Intractable Conflict: Understanding the Roots of Violence, Psychological Recovery, and Steps toward a General Theory. Political Psychology, 27(6), 867-894.
Staub, E., Pearlman, L., Gubin, A., & Hagengimana, A. (2005). Healing, Reconciliation, Forgiving and the Prevention of Violence After Genocide or Mass Killing: An Intervention And its Experimental Evaluation in Rwanda. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 24(3), 297-334.
Staub, E. (2004). Understanding and responding to group violence: Genocide, mass killing, and terrorism. Understanding terrorism: Psychosocial roots, consequences, and interventions (pp. 151-168). American Psychological Association.
Staub, E. (2000). Genocide and mass killing: Origins, prevention, healing and reconciliation. Political Psychology, 21(2), 367-382.
Staub, E. (1999). The origins and prevention of genocide, mass killing, and other collective violence. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 5(4), 303-336.
Steinweis, A. (2005). The Auschwitz Analogy: Holocaust Memory and American Debates over Intervention in Bosnia and Kosovo in the 1990s. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 19; 276- 289
Suedfeld, P. (2000). Reverberations of the Holocaust fifty years later: Psychology's contributions to understanding persecution and genocide. Canadian Psychology, 41(1), 1-9.
United Nations (2004). Basic Facts About the United Nations. United Nations.
United Nations (1948). Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Retrieved on May 8, 2007 from http://www.hrweb.org/legal/genocide.html
Ursano, R., Fullterton, C., & Norwood, A. (2003). Terrorism and Disaster: Individual and Community Mental Health Interventions. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press
van der Kolk, B., McFarlane, A., & Weisaeth, L. (1996). Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York, NY: The Guilford Press
Waller, J. (2006). Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing.
The psychology of resolving global conflicts: From war to peace (Vol. 1): Nature vs. nurture (pp. 89-107). Praeger Security International.
"B.(32A) The Board voted to contributes one hour of convention programming for Special Fulbright Programming.
C.(45) The Board received as information a briefing on the 2007 activities of the APA NGO representative team at the United Nations in New York and on activities of the CIRP UN oversight committee.
D.(46) The Board received as information a report on the 2007 activities of CIRP.
XV. CENTRAL OFFICE
XVI. FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
A.(33) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the 2007 year-end probable deficit of $698,400 and a 2008 Final Budget surplus of $332,600 (after recognition of the $2,500,000 cash flow from the buildings).
B.(34) The Board voted to increase APA's existing line of credit (LOC) from $5M to $10M and to give the CEO and CFO joint authority to approve the bank required annual LOC renewals for up to five years, through and including 2012.
C.(34A) Board voted to approve amending the following resolutions (underlined material to be added):
Resolution Authorizing Certain Persons to Act on behalf of APA as owner of APA 750 LLC
Resolution Authorizing Certain Persons to Act on behalf of APA as owner of Ten G LLC
D.(34B) The Board voted to approve the establishment of a policy that provides that new budgetary items may be considered during the spring budget process only beginning with the 2009 Preliminary Budget. This policy allows items to be formally considered by the Finance Committee and Board of Directors during their June meetings when the budget is being developed and will facilitate a more effective evaluation of initiatives at one time within the Association's established priorities and/or strategic plan once it is developed. The Board requested that boards and committees and the Council of Representatives be informed of the new policy.
E.(34C) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the suspension of the consecutive term limitation stipulated in Association Rule 210-1.1 as it relates to the appointment of a non-voting investment community member of the Finance Committee.
F.(34D) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve amending the Association Rules as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
"…It shall be the goal to present a surplus budget annually (after consideration of the cash flow from building operations) of between 1% and 2% of budgeted revenues, in order to provide a basis for orderly expansion of operations and services in successive years and to provide a margin of safety against contingencies."
G.(34E) The Board voted to recommend that Council increase the cash flow from building operations from $2.5M to $3.5M beginning in 2009.
F.(47) The Board received as information the 2006 IRS Tax Form 990.